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Measurement Type:

Sample Type:

Particle Size Range:

Sample Temperature:

Technology / Operating Principle:

Display & Special Features:

Help with Particle Analyzers specifications:

Measurement Type
   Measurement Type       
   Your choices are...         
   Composition       Instrument analyzes the chemical composition of particles within droplets, aerosols and dust. 
   Count       In order for a system to function properly and without failure it is necessary to have a method to determine the particle count in system fluid. 
   Shape       Instrument can measure, quantify or indicate the shape characteristics of the particles such as aspect ratio, elongation, roundness, Wadell's sphericity, irregularity and other shape factors. 
   Size       Particle size analysis is very useful in determining the physical makeup of samples. 
   Velocity       Instrument is capable of measuring particle velocity or speed.  Particle velocity analyzers are important for understand deposition or spraying processes such as thermal spray coating, liquid paint spraying, and powder coating. 
   Zeta Potential / Charge       The zeta potential is a measure of the magnitude of the repulsion or attraction between particles. Its measurement brings detailed insight into the dispersion mechanism and is the key to electrostatic dispersion control. The measurement of zeta potential is an extremely important parameter across a wide range of industries including brewing, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, medicine, mineral processing and water treatment. 
   Specialty / Other       Other unlisted, proprietary or patented measurement type. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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Sample Type
   Sample Type:       
   Your choices are...         
   Aerosol / Gas (Droplets / Dust)       Sample is in the form of liquid droplets, aerosolized solid particles, or dust. A liquid is a substance that flows and takes on the shape of the container it is in. The particles in a liquid are not as closely bound together as they are when the substance is in the solid state.  
   Bubbles (Gas in Liquid)       Sample is in the form of a gas or dispersed in liquid or solid.  Gas molecules spread out in the atmosphere more than molecules in a liquid or solid state, and therefore gasses are said to have a lower density than solids or liquids. 
   Dispersion / Liquid (Emulsion, Suspension)       Sample in the form of dispersion solid or liquid particle in liquid. An emulsion consists of liquid particles dispersed within another liquid.  Suspensions consist of solid particles dispersed into a liquid. Slurries consist of very heavy loadings or solids contents of particles mixed into liquid. 
   Powder / Solid Particles       Sample is in the form of a powder or solid particles.  A solid substance does not flow (like a liquid does) and does not take on the shape of the container in which it is being kept (again, like liquids do). If a solid is heated, it will become a liquid once it reaches its melting point. 
   Specialty / Other       Other unlisted, proprietary or patented sample type. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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Performance
   Particle Size Range:       The range of particle sizes that the instrument can measure or the range of sizes the instrument can count. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Sample Temperature:       Temperature of the sample material that can be accurately measured without destroying the instrument. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
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Technology / Operating Principle
   Technology / Operating Principle:      The operating principle chosen will determine the precision of the measurement.
   Your choices are...         
   Blockage / Attenuation       Blockage or attenuation techniques are based on a particle's ability to reduce the transmission of light, radiation (X-ray, beta) or electrical field (electrozone). In the light blockage technique, a small volume of the sample is passed between a laser light source and a detector, and the shadows cast by the particles on the detector are measured. The signals sent by the detector are processed through a sophisticated mathematical modeling program and result in a number of particle counts per milliliter of the sample in various size ranges.  Spatial filter velocimetry is a light blockage technique, which is useful for online process measurements.  Spatial filter velocimetry can also provide particle speed or velocity measurements.  The electrozone technique was originally developed for sizing blood cells. This method measures particle size through the blockage of electrical signal by non-conducting particles in an electrolyte (conductive liquid), such as blood cells, ceramics, glass, polymer, paint and certain food particles. For industrial materials it has many drawbacks.  It is difficult to measure emulsions and impossible to measure sprays, while dry powders require suspension. Measurement must take place in an electrolyte, which creates difficulties for organic materials, and the method requires calibration standards that are expensive and change size in distilled water and electrolyte. It is slow for materials of relatively wide particle size and it is not easy to measure particles below 2mm. Porous particles and dense materials pose additional problems. 
   Diffraction / Scattering       More accurately called low angle light laser scattering (LALLS), laser diffraction is becoming the preferred standard in many industries for characterization and quality control. It offers a wide dynamic range and is very flexible. For example, it is possible to measure the output of a spray nozzle to get correct droplet size. This has led to its wide application in the pharmaceutical and agricultural industries.  Dry powders can be measured directly and liquid suspensions and emulsions can be measured in a re-circulating cell. This gives high reproducibility and enables the use of dispersing agents and surfactants for the determination of primary particle size.  LALLS is nondestructive and unintrusive. A volume distribution is generated which is equal to the weight distribution where density is constant, making it of direct relevance to chemical engineers. Other benefits are rapidity, with answers in under a minute; repeatability for reliable results; and high resolution. There is no need to calibrate against a standard, but equipment performance can be easily verified. Also known as photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) this technique is used to determine hydrodynamic particle sizes by measuring the speed at which particles diffuse in the base liquid. The suspended particles, excited into diffusing by Brownian motion, are subjected to laser beams, and the sum of the dispersed beams is measured.  Dynamic light scattering utilizes the principle of measuring fluctuations in dispersed light. This method measures the mean particle diameter and the polydispersion characteristics or range of particle size distribution. 
   Ferrography / Magnetic       Ferrography instruments or ferrographs apply a magnetic field to a dispersion of contamination or ferromagnetic (e.g., steel, cast iron) wear particles in oil, lubricant, grease, fuel, hydraulic fluids and other fluids. A ferrogram is produced with separation of different types of particles. The ferrogram is later analyzed. 
   Microscopy / Image Analysis       Microscopy and image analysis techniques rely on capturing an image of the particles and then manual or automatically measuring the particles.  Image analysis methods allow automation and the capturing of thousands of particles as well as the determination of aspect ratio and other shape factors. Microscopy alone is an excellent technique that allows direct examination of the particles in question, and one that is relatively cheap. Microscopy is useful where a simple judgment or qualitative assessment is sufficient.  However, microscopy alone is not always suitable as a quality or production control technique when a statistically significant population of particles needs to be measured. In addition, with microscopy alone, as relatively few particles are examined, there is a real danger of unrepresentative sampling and if weight distribution is measured results are magnified. Missing one 10mm particle has the same effect as missing one thousand 1mm particles.  The National Bureau of Standards (NBS) recommends that a minimum of 10,000 images (not particles) must be examined for statistical validity (A L Dragoo et al "A critical assessment of requirements for ceramic powder characterization" Advances in Ceramics Vol. 21 Ceramic Powder Science (1987). The American Ceramic Society Inc.).  Sample preparation for electron microscopy is laborious and slow, and for manual methods fewer particles are examined. 
   Sedimentation / Centrifugal       Techniques based on the mass or density of the particles such as sedimentation or centrifugal separation.  This is the traditional method used in the paint and ceramics industries via equipment as simple as the Andreason pipette or as complex as centrifuges and X-rays.  However, as the density of the material is needed, it is not good for emulsions where the material does not settle, or for very dense material that settles too quickly.  Temperatures also require close monitoring in order to control viscosity. A 1°C change in temperature will produce a 2% change in viscosity.  Other disadvantages include slowness of measurement, which makes repeat measurements tedious. Irregularly shaped particles, such as disc-shaped kaolins, take even longer to settle due to their increased drag compared with spherical particles. The technique also has a limited range, with particular difficulties below 2mm and above 50mm. 
   Sieving / Filtration       Sieving is an old fashioned technique that is cheap and readily usable for large particles, such as those found in mining and some food processing applications. It allows separation into size bands if required. Using this technique, it is not possible to measure sprays or emulsions, and dry powders under 38mm are difficult. Cohesive and agglomerated materials, such as clays, are also difficult to measure and materials like 0.3mm TiO2 are impossible.  The longer the measurement times the smaller the answer, as particles orient themselves to fall through the sieve.  A true weight distribution is not produced as the method relies on measuring the second smallest dimension of the particle. This can produce strange results with rod-like materials such paracetamol. It is a low-resolution method and usually only four to five size classes are provided.  With the filter blockage method, a larger volume of the sample is passed through a mesh of known pore size and the time taken for the mesh to block is measured. The particle count is then determined from a standard size distribution profile. The filter blockage method may also be called "manual." 
   Other       Differential Mobility Analysis (DMA), Electrophoretic Mobility, Photon Correlation Spectroscopy, Single Particle Light Scattering, Multi-Angle Light Scattering, Single Particle Light Obscuration, Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), Time Of Flight, Fiber Optic Doppler Anemometry (FODA), Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS), Field Flow Fractionation (FFF), Air Classification, Inertial Impactors 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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Display & Special Features
   Display & Special Features       
   Your choices are...         
   Analog Meter       Data is displayed with an analog meter or simple visual indicator. 
   Computer Interface / Networkable       The instrument can be connected to a network or personal computer for transfer of data or test control. 
   Digital Readout       Device uses numerical or application specific display. 
   Handheld / Field       Handheld or portable tester, instrument or test equipment is manually presented to the material often in field applications such a soil, construction materials, and pavement.  
   Laboratory / Batch       Benchtop, table based or floor mounted gage or instrument where a part is both manually loaded and measured. Tester, instrument, or test equipment is a larger, free standing or floor mounted unit. 
   Process Line / Continuous       Sensor, instrument or monitor mounted within or on a process line or equipment or machine tool in a production environment allowing continuous monitoring and control of specific materials or media properties. 
   Sampler / Sample Prep       The instrument or test equipment is suitable for sampling, extracting samples or preparing samples for analysis. Samplers or sampling test equipment may only prepare specimens for other testers to evaluate. 
   SPC Software / Capability       Instrument has integral or optional SPC software or analysis capability. 
   Video / Graphic Display       The data is presented in video form via CRT, LCD, or other multi-line forms. 
   Other       Other unlisted, proprietary, or patented display option type. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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