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Mounting / Loading:

Applications:

Measurement Capability:

Area Mapping?

Depth Profiling?

Maximum Wafer / Part Size:

Technology:

Spectroscopic System?

FIB / Ion Mill?

Non-contact?

Non-destructive?

Help with Thin Film Monitors specifications:

Instrumentation Type
   Mounting / Loading:       
   Your choices are...         
   In-situ / System Mounted       Instrument or probe mounted on a process tool for in-situ measurement of wafer temperature), thin film thickness, plasma conditions or other process parameters. Instruments such as crystal sensor monitors or ellipsometers for monitoring thin film thickness or composition as well as control systems for the cluster tools utilized to fabricate the thin films or semiconductors. 
   In-line       Instrument designed for in-line use in a production line or semiconductor fabrication facility.  Instrument with an integral wafer handling robot or autoloader that automatically pulls samples from a cassette for inspection.  Instruments such as wafer probers, imaging stations, ellipsometers, CD-SEMs, ion mills, C-V systems or diffractometers specifically designed for wafer and thin film in-line inspection after semiconductor processing steps. 
   Floor Mounted / Stand-alone       Floor mounted or stand-alone systems or instruments are larger units usually dedicated to a specific inspection or analysis task in production or research applications. 
   Manual Loading       Manually loaded units are usually used off-line in research type applications.  Small benchtop systems systems are typically manually loaded. 
   Other       Other loading method not listed. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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Applications
           
   Your choices are...         
   CVD / PVD Films       Ex-situ inspection or in-situ process monitoring of thin films produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), physical vapor deposition (PVD - sputtering, evaporation) or other related processes. 
   Data Storage / Memory       Ex-situ inspection or in-situ process monitoring of thin films or surfaces produced for memory or data storage components such as magnetic media, optical drive disks or read/write heads. 
   Electroplated Films       Ex-situ inspection or in-situ process monitoring of thin films produced by electrochemical or electroplating techniques. 
   Etching - Plasma / Wet       Instruments measuring or monitoring plasma or wet chemical etching processes on thin films, wafers or other surfaces. 
   Flat Panel Displays       Instruments measuring or monitoring flat panel displays thin film processes or resulting surfaces. 
   Optical Components        Instruments used for inspection or process monitoring of optical thin films and surfaces such as anti-reflective coatings, reflective films, refractive index modifiers or transparent wear resistance layer that are applied to optical components such as lenses, optical fibers or masks. 
   Oxidation / RTP       Ex-situ inspection or in-situ process monitoring of oxidized silicon layers produced by conventional furnace annealing or rapid thermal processing. 
   Packaged ICs / Ceramic Substrates       Instruments for inspection or metrology of substrates used to fabricate thick or thin film resistors, package IC chips as well as ceramic product surfaces for wear, process, optical or thermal applications.  Packaged ICs are chips diced from wafers that have been encapsulated or bonded to a polymer or ceramic package with interconnections for placement on PCBs. 
   Photolithography / Patterning       Instruments used for the inspection of patterned wafers, photolithography masks, reticles and overlay registration or alignment.  
   Polishing / CMP       Ex-situ inspection of polished bared wafer, head surfaces or chemical-mechanical planarized (CMP) deposited films. 
   Polymers / Photoresists       Ex-situ inspection or in-situ process monitoring of thin polymer films or the photoresist layers used in patterning wafers. 
   Semiconductor Wafers       Instruments for inspection or metrology of bare wafers of silicon or other materials.  These instruments check for warp, bow, flatness, thickness variations, roughness, waviness and resistivity or compositional variations. 
   Other       Other instrumentation not listed for ex-situ inspection or in-situ process monitoring of thin films or semiconductor wafers. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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Measurement Capability
           
   Your choices are...         
   Adhesion       Instruments with the capability to measure adhesion or bond strength between the film and substrate. 
   Composition       Instruments providing qualitative or quantitative information on the chemical or elemental composition of thin films, substrates or wafers. Composition analysis can provide an unambiguous indication of dopant type. 
   Critical Dimension / Trench Geometry       Critical dimension measurement is the smallest feature size of the transistor or device controlling function or performance. Critical dimensions are gaged with instruments providing high spatial resolution of a surface such as CD-SEMs or specialized optical imaging systems. Instruments such as FIBs or profilometers are used to measure of the depth or dimensions of trenches or junctions. 
   Defects / ADC       Instruments with the ability to detect residual traces of films or depressions (dimple defects) or patterned conductor or pad flaws on the surface of a substrate or wafer after polishing, CMP, etching or other processes.  Instruments with Automatic defect classification (ADC) hav image processors and software algorithms that can determine the type of defect on a wafer or device. 
   Deposition Rate       Instruments, monitors or controllers, used to measure the rate of thin film deposition in milligrams/sec or nanometers/sec.  Thin film controller measure and feedback signals to the source or gun to control the deposition rate. 
   Dielectric Properties       Instruments used to measure the dielectric properties (dielectric constant, strength and loss tangent) of insulating thin films, oxide layers or substrates. 
   Electrical Test - Parametric / In-line       Probing instruments used for in-line parametric or wafer sorting electrical tests on gates, IC devices or electrical circuits.  In-line parametric tests are preformed on scribe line or process control monitors (SLM / PCM) to assure wafer level reliability.  
   Electrical Test - Wafer Sort / Functional       Instruments with the ability to sort and/or mark die on wafers based on electrical performance. Wafer sorters or probers preform functional tests on dies in wafers or on packaged ICs.  Functional tests verify the operation of all chip functions and then defective dies or chips are marked.  Ink marks were traditionally used, but electronic wafer maps are now being employed.  
   Dopant Level / Resistivity       Instruments used to determine the type of semiconductor (n or p) or the level of dopant or carriers in a semiconductor.  Resistivity measurements with an electrical probe are one technique employed to confirm wafer type. 
   Magnetic Properties (Coercivity / Shift)       Instruments such as magnetometers with the capability to measure magnetization, magnetoresistive properties, coercivity and shift.  These types of instruments are used to determine the critical magnetic properties of advanced Giant Magneto-Resistive (GMR) and Tunnel Magneto-Resistive (TMR) style magnetic heads and MRAM materials.    
   Optical Constants (n, k)       Instruments such as ellipsometers with the capability to measure the optical constants, refractive index (n) or extinction coefficient (k), of thin films or optical components.  
   Particle Contamination       Instruments with the capability to detect and characterize particle contamination on thin film or semiconductor wafers.  Characterization may include size and particle count measurements of spots or full depositions of particulates. 
   Endpoint Detection / Plasma Diagnostics       Detection of the endpoint of plasma etching, CMP or other processes usually through spectral analysis of the plasma, precursor gases or thin film layers.  In plasma etching, endpoint detection is measured using a detector that monitors for a change in composition of the substrate or plasma.  The electrical potential of the CMP slurry is monitored to determine process conditions and the endpoint of the planarization process.  Plasma diagnostics instruments are tools for monitoring feed or precursor gases, plasma or ionized gases, ion flux, plasma potential, electron density and identifying gas contaminants.   Spectrometers, gas analyzers, Langmuir probes and RF power meters are employed for process gas or plasma diagnostics. 
   Roughness / Waviness       Instruments such as non-contact or contact profilometers capable of measuring surface texture, roughness or waviness parameters (Ra, Rq or Rrms, tp, Rz, Rmax, W). 
   Shape / Flatness       Instruments used to measure the shape, flatness, warp, bow, TTV (total thickness variation) of semiconductor wafers, data storage media or ceramic substrates. 
   Structure / Residual Stress       Instruments capable of discerning microstructural, chemical bond type or structural features of wafer or thin film deposits.  Microstructural features include phase distribution, grain size or texture (grain orientation).  Structural features include crystal structure, crystal orientation, degree of slip or twinning and stacking faults. Instruments used to measure the stress in thin films or substrates.  The stress develops in a film or substrate due to the volume and thermal changes during the deposition process.  Residual surface stresses develop in the surfaces or wafers or other substrates due to cutting or abrasion processes.  X-ray diffraction techniques are commonly used to quantify residual stresses and structure.  The measurement of bowing or wafer shape can also provide an indication of film or residual stress.   
   Thickness - Film / Layer       Instruments capable of measuring the thickness of metal thin films, oxidized layers or ion implantation zones. 
   Thickness - Wafer / Disc (TTV)       Instruments with the capability to measure material thickness of wafers, discs or substrates. 
   Other       Other measurement capability not listed such instruments used to detect the carrier type (n or p) of a semiconductor, measure film or substrate porosity or density or to monitor the temperature of wafers or thin films during the deposition or treatment processes. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Area Mapping?       Instruments with the ability to spatially map the value of a parameter over the area of a wafer surface or thin film deposit. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
   Depth Profiling?       Instruments with the ability to provide the variation of a parameter such as concentration with respect to depth into the wafer or thin film deposit. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
   Maximum Wafer / Part Size:       The maximum size or diameter of the wafer, disk or substrate that can be monitored or inspected with the instrumentation. 
   Search Logic:      All matching products will have a value greater than or equal to the specified value.
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Technology
   Technology:       
   Your choices are...         
   Capacitance / EM Gage       Capacitance or electromagnetic gages use field measurement to measure thickness of thin films or substrates.  Some of these system can measure non-destructively in non-contact modes. 
   Crystal Microbalance (QCM)       Crystal microbalance instruments or sensor use a piezoelectrically vibrated quartz crystal to measure deposition rate in thin film or plating processes.   As a film deposits build up on the crystal sensor's surface, the vibration frequency changes providing an indication of the mass deposition rate. 
   C-V System / Probe       C-V refers to Capacitance vs. Voltage. C-V measurements are an integral part of semiconductor device characterization. C-V measurements evaluate how the capacitance of a semiconductor device varies with applied voltage. C-V is commonly used to determine semiconductor parameters such as doping profiles, density of interface states, threshold voltages, oxide charge, and carrier lifetime.  
   Electron Beam Probe / CD-SEM       CD-SEM, TEM, EPMA or other electron beam probe imaging and analysis system. 
   Ellipsometer       Ellipsometers use the reflection of polarized light from a surface to measure film properties.  Two types of ellipsometers are available, discrete wavelength and spectroscopic.  A spectroscopic ellipsometer measures the wavelength dependence of n and k, the layer thicknesses in multilayer structures and the composition of materials. In comparison to monochromatic or discrete wavelength ellipsometry, no thickness ambiguity occurs when measuring transparent layers with spectroscopic ellipsometry.  Ellipsometry measurements may require more time to acquire or process, but the technique is more powerful than reflectometry.     
   Interferometer       An interferometer is used to measure both distances in terms of wavelength and to determine wavelengths of particular light sources.  Interferometry is the use of interference phenomena for measurement purposes, either for very small angles or for tiny distance increments (the displacement of two objects relative to one another). An interferometer is a device to make such measurements. Though there are many different types and designs of interferometers, virtually all of them operate on the same basic principle. From a beam of light coming from a single source (a star, a laser, a lamp, etc.), two or more flat mirrors are used to split off (or ``pick off'') different light beams. These beams are then combined so as to interfere with each other. What is looked for is alternating bands of light and dark, called fringes. Fringes are bright where the beams are constructively adding together and dark where they are canceling each other out. 
   I-V System / SMU       Instruments or systems that apply a calibrated voltage or current a source to a sample and measure the current or voltage response. SMUs are Source Measure Units that provide both source and measurement capability. In addtion to voltage or resistance, SMU instrument unit types are available with variety of measurement capability such as capacitance (CMU) or picoammeter unit (PAU).  The SMUs interface with an automated test equipment (ATE) system that controls testing and data acquisition.   
   Magnetometer       Instruments used to measure magnetization, magnetoresistive properties, coercivity and shift.  These types of instruments are used to determine the critical magnetic properties of advanced Giant Magneto-Resistive (GMR) and Tunnel Magneto-Resistive (TMR) style magnetic heads and MRAM materials. 
   Optical / Imaging System       Specialized optical instruments such as microscopes or vision systems for imaging, CD resolution, defect detection and classification, surface roughness, thickness gaging or other measurements. Vision systems consist of an integrated camera or image capture device with processing, storage, analysis and control systems for automated inspection, metrology or image analysis end-uses in laboratory or clean room settings. Typically, the products are stationary with high magnification optics as well as high-resolution imagers and precision sample stage or positioners. The high resolution and precision positioning is required for the 2D or 3D measurement of semiconductor wafer and thin film surfaces.  
   Profilometer / AFM       Instrument that measures the surface roughness or other surface characteristics usually with a stylus that contacts the surface.  Optical or non-contact profilometers are also used to non-destructively measure surface roughness.  Scanning probe or atomic force microscopes (SPM / AFM) are used to evaluate surfaces at the atomic level. 
   Reflectometer       Reflectometers or radiometers measure the reflectivity and radiance from a surface.  Reflectometry can be used for in-situ measurements of thin film thickness.  The change in reflectivity during the etching of metal films can provide endpoint detection information.  Reflectometry quickly provides information, but the technique is less powerful than ellipsometry.  
   Resistance Probe (Four-point / SRP)       Four-point resistance probe are commonly used to measure the resistivity of thin films. One set of probes applies a current and a second pair of probes measures the potential difference.  Spreading resistance probes or analyzers are used to determine carrier concentrations. Spreading resistance analysis employs a sophisticated ohmmeter.  Resistance probing employing a "hot probe" can provide an indication of conductivity or dopant type (n or p) based on interpretation through the Seeback or thermoelectric effect. 
   RHEED / Electron Diffraction System       Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is used to measure or monitor crystal structure or crystal orientation of epitaxial thin films of silicon or other materials. Low energy electron diffraction is another electron diffraction method employed in thin film and wafer analysis. 
   X-ray Diffractometer       X-ray diffractometers are employed to unambiguously determine crystal structure, crystal orientation, film thickness and residual stress in silicon wafers, epitaxial films or other substrates. 
   Other       Other technology or techniques not listed such as thermal wave or photoacoustic systems. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Spectroscopic System?       A spectroscopy instrument such as a spectroscopic ellipsometer or a spectrometer specialized for thin film or wafer analysis.  Spectrometers used in the production and research of thin films and wafers include AAS, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), FTIR / Raman, RGA, SIMS / Mass Spectrometers, optical emission spectroscopy (OES), UV-Vis, XPS (ESCA), XRF,  EDS/WDS, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) or  Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
   FIB / Ion Mill?       Focused Ion beam mills are used to destructively section or cut through a semiconductor device to reveal and allow imaging and analysis of the underlying structure. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
   Non-contact?       Wafer or process probes or instrumentation that make measurements without making contact with the surface.  
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
   Non-destructive?       An instrument that can acquire measurements without destroying the sample. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
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