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MOR / Flexural Strength:

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Width / O.D.:

Thickness / Wall Thickness:

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Applications
           
   Your choices are...         
   Flooring       Materials are suitable for flooring or floor-tiling applications. 
   Paving       Materials are suitable for exterior paving, walkway, or roadway lining applications. 
   Roofing       Materials are suitable for roofing or roof-tiling applications. 
   Walls       Materials are suitable for use on walls. 
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   Applications:       
   Your choices are...         
   Abrasive / Erosive Wear Protection       Materials resist damage by abrasion or erosion, and protect underlying surfaces from abrasive or erosive wear. 
   Ceramics / Glass Manufacturing       Materials provide resistance to molten glass, or are compatible with ceramics and glasses during firing, calcining or fusing in a kiln or furnace. 
   Chemical / Materials Processing       Materials provide high temperature and/or corrosion resistance, making them suitable for chemical-processing applications.  Examples include ceramics or refractories with resistance to molten glass, ceramics, metals, plastics or other materials during milling, firing, calcination, fusion or other processes. 
   Construction & Building / Architectural       Materials are designed or suitable for use in architectural, building, and construction applications. Examples include bricks, fire bricks or tiles.  
   Corrosion Protection (Acid Brick)       Materials are designed or suitable for corrosive environments such as the floors or walls of chemical processing plants. 
   Foundry / Metal Processing       Materials are designed for foundry and metal-processing applications. Ceramic and refractory crucibles, tubes, stoppers, liners, spouts, permanent molds, thermocouple protection tubes, combustion gas heater tubes, submersible heater tubes, die casting stalks/sleeves and other furnace components are used in foundries for melting and casting aluminum, steel, copper alloys or other metals. 
   Refractory / High Temperature Materials       Refractory and high-temperature materials are hard, heat-resistant products such as alumina cement, fire clay, bricks, precast shapes, cement or monolithics, and ceramic kiln furniture. Ceramic refractories have high melting points and are suitable for applications requiring wear-resistance, high temperature strength, electrical or thermal insulation, or other specialized characteristics. 
   Structural       Structural applications require ceramic components with a suitable strength, elastic modulus, toughness and other mechanical properties. Ceramics can have much higher compressive strengths and elastic moduli compared to metals. 
   Thermal Insulation / Fire Proofing (Firebrick)       Thermally-insulating ceramics and refractories provide a thermal barrier between components and a hot or cold source. These ceramics and refractory shapes are also useful in providing flame protection and fire-proofing between a burner and the surrounding environment, or between combustion and oxygen sources. 
   MRO (Repair / Resurfacing)       Materials are suitable for repair, hole or gap filling, patching, refinishing, resurfacing, and other MRO applications.  
   Other       Other unlisted, specialized or proprietary applications. 
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Material Type
           
   Your choices are...         
   Alumina / Aluminum Oxide       Alumina or aluminum oxide (Al2O3) is a compound that consists of aluminum and oxygen. Typically, it used in the alpha alumina structural form. In its pure form, alumina is a white ceramic material with high hardness. Fully-dense alumina can be translucent. Alumina is used widely because of its versatility and relatively low cost. Depending on its purity and density, alumina is used to make refractory tubes, industrial crucibles, analytical labware, dielectric substrates, wear components, refractory cements and abrasives. Alumina’s main drawback, its relatively poor thermal shock resistance, is due to its higher coefficients of thermal expansion and lower thermal conductivity compared to other pure ceramic materials, such as silicon carbide (SiC).  
   Alumina-Zirconia       Zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) and other zirconia-alumina ceramics are often used in wear applications as an intermediate solution between alumina and zirconia. ZTA offers increased fracture toughness over alumina at a lower cost compared to pure or high zirconia ceramics. Depending on the purity and density, alumina is used for refractory tubes, industrial crucibles, analytical labware, wear components, refractory cements, and abrasives.  
   Aluminum Silicate (Mica, Sillimanite, etc.)       Ceramics contain or are based upon natural or synthetic aluminosilicate minerals such as sillimanite, fibrolite, or mica. Sillimanite, fibrolite, and mica are aluminum silicate (Al2SiO5) compounds that consist of silicon, aluminum and oxygen.  Sillimanite is also a naturally-occurring mineral that is calcined through processing.  Mica also contains potassium, and is characterized by its layer structure. Mica is fire-proof and non-fusing, and can resist temperatures of up to 900° C - depending on the type of mica. Mica also has low heat conductivity, excellent thermal stability, and good dielectric or electrical insulation properties. The major types of mica are muscovite, biotite, and phlogopite. 
   Calcium Aluminate       Calcium aluminate (CaAlO3) refractories are usually derived from calcium aluminate, calcium, or alumina bearing minerals.  Calcium aluminate is used in refractory cements and shapes as well as synthetic slag additions for metallurgical operations.    
   Carbon / Graphite       Carbon without a crystalline structure is referred to as amorphous, vitreous or glassy carbon. 
   Concrete / Cement       Brick based on a concrete mixture or cement binder.  Concrete consists of specialty cement or Portland cement and water mixed with coarse aggregate (e.g., gravel or crushed stone), fine aggregate or sand. 
   Fireclay       Fireclay is a heat-resistant secondary clay or clay-based mixture useful for elevated temperature or refractory bond applications. Fireclay-based refractories or ceramics use natural clay or a mixture of clay and other ceramics such as alumina, calcium aluminate, or silicon carbide. Clays or kaolin acts as a binder, and provide plasticity during shape or product processing.  Typically, fireclays have high alumina and silica levels such as flint clays, plastic fire clays, or other secondary clays. Fireclays usually contain between 10-40% alumina and 40-80% silica. 
   Graphite       Graphite is a carbon material with an anisotropic or hexagonal crystal structure. Hexagonal or flake graphite has a weak, platelet structure that flakes or wears away quickly, providing a lubricating action. Pyrolytic graphite (PG) materials have a high density, layered and highly anisotropic crystal structure. Pyrolytic graphite is a unique form of graphite manufactured by decomposition of a hydrocarbon gas at very high temperature in a vacuum furnace. Generally, its mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties are far superior to conventional hexagonal (flake) structured or bonded materials.  
   Kaolin / Clay Based       Kaolin-based refractories or ceramics use natural kaolin or a mixture of clay and other ceramics such as alumina, calcium aluminate or silicon carbide.  Kaolin acts as a binder and provides plasticity. It is a hydrous, mineral clay that is based on aluminum silicate [Al2 (Si205) (0H)4].  Kaolin is also referred to as clay, anhydrous aluminum silicate, aluminum silicate dihydrate, nacrite, dickite, kaolinite, calcined, kaolinite, china clay, bolus alba, porcelain clay, aluminum, silicate hydroxide, or aluminum silicate (hydrated).  Kaolin’s plate-like structure allows particles in a wet clay mass to slide across each other and maintain plasticity.  Kaolin is a white, soft plastic clay composed primarily of well-ordered kaolinite mineral [Al2Si2O5(OH)4] with minor amounts of quartz, feldspar, and sheet silicate minerals (mica, illite, smectite, and chlorite).  Geologically, there are two types of kaolin deposits, i.e., primary and secondary kaolin. Primary kaolin is formed through the alteration, or kaolinization, of in-situ minerals of feldspar and other aluminum silicates to kaolinite. Secondary kaolin is laid down as sediments, usually in fresh water, far from the place of origin. Various types of secondary kaolin are ball clay, fireclay, or flint clay depending on kaolinite content and their properties.  
   Magnesia / Magnesite       Magnesia ceramics or refractories are based on compounds that consist of magnesium and oxygen. Magnesite or magnesia refractories or minerals are also known as magnesium oxide, magnesium carbonate, dead burned magnesite, calcined magnesite, periclase or magnesia clinker. Depending on the origin and processing, magnesia is divided into caustic, dead-burnt, fused, precipitated, sintered or calcined and synthetic magnesia forms.   The high melting point (2800° C) and heat resistance (1700°C in the reducing and 2300° C in oxidizing atmosphere) of magnesium oxide make it suitable for the production of refractories. Magnesite is the naturally occurring mineral or ore used to produce magnesium oxide based refractories. Magnesite often contains iron, manganese or other activator elements. Magnesium oxide refractories with a carbon bond are frequently used in the steel industry. Magnesite refractories have good resistance to molten iron and steel.      
   Silica / Silicate Materials       Ceramics are based on silica and silicate materials. Silica and silicates are compounds of silicon and oxygen. For dielectric applications, silicates are modified with magnesium and/or aluminum to provide sufficient dielectric properties. Cordierite and steatite are silicates that are commonly used in dielectric applications. High-purity, amorphous, fused silica is a high-performance ceramic with very low expansion, remarkable thermal shock resistance, low thermal conductivity, excellent electrical insulation up to 1000° C, and excellent resistance to corrosion from molten metal and glass. 
   Silicon Carbide       Silicon carbide (SiC) is a compound of silicon metalloid and oxygen. Typically, SiC is used in the alpha silicon carbide structural form. Silicon carbide is a black, high-hardness ceramic that is usually harder than alumina. Depending on the addition of impurities, SiC may be green or black in color.  Fully-dense SiC can be transparent (moissanite).  SiC is used widely because of its versatility and relatively low cost. Depending on its purity and density, SiC is used in refractory tubes, industrial crucibles, wafer semi-insulating substrates, wear components, refractory cements, and abrasives.  SiC forms a protective SiO2 skin that prevents further oxidation at very high temperatures in non-reducing atmospheres.  Because of its low coefficient of thermal expansion and high thermal conductivity, SiC has a relatively high thermal shock resistance compared to other ceramic materials. 
   Zircon       Zircon is a compound of a zirconium silicate, ZrSiO4, which is found naturally in the form of zircon sand. Zircon has useful refractory properties. 
   Zirconia       Zirconia or zirconium oxide (ZrO2) is an extremely refractory compound of zirconium and oxygen. Zirconia may have additions of calcia, magnesia or yttria to stabilize the structure into a cubic structure. Zirconia stabilized in the cubic crystal structure avoids cracking and mechanical weakening during heating and cooling.  Certain zirconia materials have the ability to transformation toughen (tetragonal to monoclinic phase change) under applied stress. They are often used in wear applications that require improved fracture toughness and stiffness over alumina.  Zirconia ceramics possess excellent chemical inertness and corrosion resistance at temperatures well above the melting point of alumina. Zirconia is more costly than alumina, so it is only used where alumina will fail. Zirconia has low thermal conductivity and is an electrical conductor above 800° C. Zirconia is used to fabricate oxygen sensors or fuel cell membranes because zirconia possesses the unique ability to allow oxygen ions to move freely through the crystal structure above 600° C. Zirconia products should not be used in contact with alumina above 1600°C.  Depending on the purity and density, zirconia is used in refractory tubes or cylinders, industrial crucibles, analytical labware, sensors, wear components, refractory cements, thermocouple protection tubes, furnace muffles, liners and high temperature heating element supports. 
   Portland Cement / CaSiO3 Bond       Portland cements as well as some refractories are based on calcium silicate. Calcium silicate (CaSio3) refractories are usually derived from calcium silicate, calcium or silicate bearing minerals such hornblende, epidote, and diopside, often with calcite or dolomite or wollastonite. Wollastonite is a naturally occurring form of calcium silicate commonly used as filler.   Portland cements are based on calcium silicate, CaSiO3.  Portland cement, the fundamental ingredient in concrete, is calcium silicate cement made from a combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum, and iron oxide minerals. Clinker is a fused mineral mixture of limestone, shells or chalk and shale, clay, sand, or iron ore, which is crushed into a fine powder to manufacture Portland cements.  Certain grades of cements may contain additions of fine aggregates of fumed silica, fly ash or milled slag as well as chemical additives to improve strength, entrain air, reduce heat generation and cracking, or improve corrosion resistance to sulphates or other chemicals. 
   Fiber Reinforced?       Fibreboards, fiber-based, or fiber-reinforced products include ceramic boards, cylinders or shapes that contain ceramic or mineral wool fibers to improve structural integrity or insulating characteristics. 
   Polymer Modified?       Portland cement is modified with polymer additions to improve plasticity, water resistance or allow use cold or freezing weather conditions. 
   Polymer Bond?       Organic or polymer resin binders hold refractories together until firing. Some resins are designed to burn out while other will convert to carbon. Polymer cements, mortars or concretes are used in corrosion protection applications such as linings or walls in chemical process plants. Polymer cements and mortars are used to bond corrosion resistant tile, brick or other masonry components. Carbon bonds are used in high temperature carbon-carbon composites. 
   Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary ceramic types. 
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Performance Specifications
   Max Use Temperature       This is the maximum temperature that the refractory or ceramic material can be exposed to momentarily without the degradation of structural or other required end-use properties.  The maximum use temperature is usually equal to the melt temperature of the metal, glass, or other material contained by the refractory body in the furnace, boiler or process unit. The Curie point is the temperature above which a material loses its unique magnetic, dielectric or piezoelectric property.  Ferrites or other magnetic materials lose their unique magnetic properties above the Curie temperature. The relative permeability drops to a value below 0.1 above the Curie temperature.  Magnetic susceptibility is inversely proportional to temperature. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Compressive / Crushing Strength       The crushing or compressive strength is the maximum compressive load per unit cross section that a ceramic body can withstand before mechanical failure or breakage occurs.   
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   MOR / Flexural Strength       Modulus of rupture (MOR), cross-break strength or flexural strength (3-point or 4-point) is the maximum flexural stress a bar can withstand before failure or fracture occurs. The bar is supported by two points beneath the bar and the load is applied by one or two points above the bar. Cross break strength is used to evaluate the strength of ceramics or other materials that do not provide sufficient plastic deformation to test tensile strength reliably.  
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Dimensions
   Length       The length of a stock material such as a bar, rod, plate or tube.  
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Width / O.D.       The width is the outer diameter (O.D.) of stock shapes such as bars, plates, and tubes; or of fabricated components such as crucibles. 
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   Thickness / Wall Thickness       The thickness of a stock form, tube wall, or other fabricated component. Stock forms include bars, rods, plates and tubes. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
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