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Electroceramic Type:

Dielectric Strength:

Dielectric Constant (Relative Permittivity):

#

Loss Tangent (tan δ ):

#

Electrical Resistivity:

Saturation Magnetization (Bs or 4πMs):

Electromechanical Coupling Constant (k33):

#

Distortion / Charge Constant (d33):

pm/V

Shape / Form:

Hollow Stock / Shape?

Length:

Width / O.D.:

Thickness / Wall Thickness:

Max Use / Curie Temperature:

Coeff. of Thermal Expansion (CTE):

Modulus of Elasticity:

Density:

Applications:

Performance Features:

Help with Electroceramics specifications:

Electroceramic Type
           
   Your choices are...         
   Dielectric Ceramic       Dielectric ceramics have high electrical resistivity (low electrical conductivity) and high dielectric strength. Dielectric strength is the resistance to electrical breakdown under an applied electric field. 
   Electrostrictive Ceramic       Electrostrictive ceramics are relaxor ferroelectric ceramics. Strains vary quadratically with an electric field for the electrostrictor, rather than linearly as in a piezoelectric ceramics. Relaxors exhibit very high dielectric constants (K > 20,000), diffuse ferroelectric-to-paraelectric phase transitions, and electrostrictive strain vs. electric field behavior.  Electrostrictors excel at high frequencies and very-low driving fields. Often, they are applied in specialized microactuators. Electrostrictors display little or no hysteretic loss even at very high frequencies of operation, due to the lack of spontaneous polarization. For transducer applications, electrostrictors must operate under a DC bias field to induce piezoelectric behavior. Operation under bias is characterized by field-dependent piezoelectric and electromechanical coupling coefficients.  Relaxors exhibit poor temperature stability and they operate best in situations where the temperature can be stabilized to within approximately 10°C.  
   Ferrite Ceramic       Ferrites are ferrimagnetic oxides with dielectric and magnetic properties that are useful for RF and microwave applications. Spinel ferrites typically have a general formula of AB2O4.  Iron-based ferrites have the general formula MO-Fe2O3 where M is a divalent ion such as Fe, Ni, Cu, Mg, Mn, Co, Zn, or Li. Hexagonal ferrites, hexaferrites, or materials in the magnetoplumbites group have the general formula AB12O19 and include barium ferrite and strontium ferrites. 
   Garnet (Ferromagnetic)       Ferrogarnets or rare earth iron garnets have a fairly complex structure with the general formula of (3M2O3)C(2Fe2O3)A(3Fe2O3)D where M is yttria or rare earth ion and (A,C,D) are lattice site.  Yttrium aluminum garnet or YIG (Y2Fe5O12) is a common microwave or ferromagnetic garnet.  Magnetization levels are modified by substituting Al for Fe or combinations of Ho, Dy or Gd for Y in microwave or ferromagnetic garnets. 
   Piezoelectric Ceramic       Piezoelectric ceramics include quartz and ferroelectric or perovskite materials. Ferroelectric materials include lead titanates, lead zirconates, lead zirconate titanates (PZT), barium titanates, barium tantalate, and lead magnesium niobates. Ferroelectric materials and have the general formula ABO3 .  Piezoelectric materials produce an electrical charge when a load is applied and deformation occurs. These properties make piezoelectric materials useful for pressure or load sensors.  Inversely, piezoelectric materials produce force or deformation when a load is an applied electrical charge. These properties make piezoelectric materials useful for microactuators, nanoactuators, or piezoelectric motors.  
   Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary ceramic types. 
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Electrical Properties
   Dielectric Strength       Dielectric strength is the maximum voltage field that the ceramic or material can withstand before electrical breakdown occurs. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Dielectric Constant (Relative Permittivity)       The dielectric constant is the relative permittivity of a material compared to a vacuum or free space.  k = εr = ε / εo= where ε is the absolute permittivity of the material and εo is the absolute permittivity of a vacuum 8.85 x 10-12 F/m.  
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Loss Tangent (tan δ )       In dielectric materials, the loss tangent or loss coefficient is ratio of the imaginary or loss permittivity to the real permittivity of a material. In a capacitive circuit with a sinusoidal or AC voltage, the loss tangent is equal to the ratio of dissipated or discharged current to the storage current tan δ = | IR / IC | .  The dielectric quality factor (Q) is equal the inverse of the loss tangent. High Q or low loss tangents are required to reduce insertion losses.  Q = (average stored energy per cycle / energy dissipated per cycle) In magnetic materials or ferrites, the loss tangent or loss coefficient is ration of complex imaginary permeability (µ") to real permeability(µ').  
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Electrical Resistivity       Electrical resistivity is the longitudinal electrical resistance (ohm-cm) of a uniform rod of unit length and unit cross-sectional area. Electrical resistivity is the inverse of conductivity. High resistivity is a defining characteristic of a dielectric material. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Saturation Magnetization (Bs or 4πMs)       Saturation magnetization or flux density (Bs , 4πJs, 4πMs) is the flux density (B) at which saturation of a magnetic material occurs.  Saturation is the point at which the flux density (B) in a material does not increase with further application of increased magnetization force (H). 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Electromechanical Coupling Constant (k33)       The coupling factor (k) is a related to the ratio of stored energy converted to the stored input energy. The coupling factor provides an indication of the efficiency of transduction in electromechanical or mechanical-electrical conversion, but not the absolute efficiency since energy can be converted at low frequencies. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Distortion / Charge Constant (d33)       The piezoelectric material constant (d) provides an indication of strain for a given applied electric field.  The 33 in d33 indicates the induced strain per unit electric field strength is in the 3-direction or the electric dipole per unit applied stress in the 3-direction. The X,Y,Z directions are equivalent to 1,2,3 directions.  P = dT where P is the electric dipole and T is the tensile stress in the material.  Charge constant is usually give in units of pm/V or pC/N. 
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Shape / Form
   Shape / Form:       
   Your choices are...         
   Bar Stock       Stock products are available in the form of a bar or rod, usually with a square cross-section. Stock forms can be processed in rectangular, oval, hexagonal, or other shapes. 
   Block       Blocks are building materials or masonry units consisting of fired ceramic or cement materials with a regular shape. Blocks usually have a rectangular shape, although specialized shapes are used for paving, refractory, decorative and other specialized applications. Refractory or fireclay blocks are manufactured from temperature resistant materials.  Refractory blocks are stacked to form an insulating furnace, boiler, or other thermal process vessel wall.  The refractory blocks are usually cemented together with a refractory mortar. Blocks are similar to bricks but typically smaller in overall dimensions. 
   Fabricated / Custom Shape       Materials are fabricated in the form of a custom or application-specific shape such as a crucible, valve seat, blade, fired custom shaped brick or block, custom contoured tile, diffuser, furnace lining, degasser, and precast cement or concrete structural shape. The custom shape could be fabricated using pressing, slip casting, firing or sintering, melting, casting, cement form casting, and/or other processing methods. 
   Ferrule / Eyelet       Ferrules and eyelets are cylindrically-shaped ceramic components with a central bore for protection or spacing applications. Refractory ferrules provide the best protection possible for vulnerable boiler tube inlet areas and metal tube sheets in sulfur recovery units (SRUs), methane reformers and waste heat boilers (WHBs). Eyelets are used in textile and wear guide applications.  Ceramic ferrules or stand-offs are used in circuit board, fiber optic, and RF & microwave applications. Electronic ferrules or stand-offs required good dielectric properties.  Optical ceramic ferrules are used in the alignment of optical fiber. Electronic ferrules are used in spacing or insulating electronic components. 
   Granular Fill / Bed Media       Granular fill is a loose, insulating material such as vermiculite that is loaded into a cavity to provide insulation and remains in a loose, unbonded condition. Bed media is a loose granular ceramic used in a catalytic oxidizer, fluid bed heater, or other thermal process unit to hold, filter or carry catalyst chemicals or particles during the heating, burning, or chemical reaction operation. Typically, ceramic bed media and granular fill have a high degree of porosity. 
   Liner - Modular / Sectional       Modular or sectional lining systems consist of a series of interlocking components that fit or stack together to form a protective furnace lining. Induction furnaces often utilize a modular furnace lining system fabricated from ceramics that do not interfere with the inductive heating process. Liners may use a backup of ramming cement behind the liner, but not within the interlocking grooves.  Removal of refractory cement between the ceramic sections improves lining life and quality of the melt.  Tongue and groove crucibles are a modular crucible system consisting of a series of interlocking components that stack together to form a furnace lining or crucible.   
   Plate / Board (e.g., Fiberboard)       Stock products are available in the form of a solid plate, slab, board, or substrate. The board or plate may consist of a ceramic fiberboard product, a dense sintered ceramic plate, or a precast cement bonded slab. 
   Powder / Aggregate (Grain / Grog)       Stock products are available in a particulate form such as a powder, grog, grain, or fused and crushed aggregate. 
   Precursor / Sol-gel       Stock or standard products are available in the form of a liquid, solid or gaseous chemical precursor, or sol-gel chemical components. Sol-gel ceramics are made using alkoxide precursor chemicals. 
   Tile       Tile consists of a flat, thin ceramic shape usually with beveled edges for lining or covering a surface. Tile may have square, rectangular, hexagonal, triangular, round or custom shapes.  Tiles often have a protective glaze to create a waterproof or water resistance surface.  Tile can be smooth and glossy for wall applications, or anti-slip textured with a matt finish for floor applications. 
   Wafer Carrier / Holder       Wafer carriers and holders are specialized devices for processing of silicon or compound (GaAs) semiconductor wafers. Ceramics are used to fabricate wafer carriers due to their corrosion resistance and refractoriness. Wafers are mounted onto or held by the carriers during dicing, polishing, lapping, thinning, chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), inspection or other operations. 
   Wafer / Substrate       Ceramic products in the form of thin substrates and wafers are used in semiconductor, thin and thick-film deposition, and optoelectronics applications. The ceramic material may be a dielectric insulator, a semiconductor, or a semi-insulator. Wafers for semiconductor applications usually consist of round substrates that are precision-polished and planarized. 
   Rod Stock       Stock products are available in the form of a rod or a bar with a round cross-section.  
   Tube Stock       Tube stock has a single, central bore or inner diameter. Tubes are commonly used as heating elements, for thermocouple protection, or channeling molten metal. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Hollow Stock / Shape?       Materials are supplied or available as hollow tubes, pipes or other stock with an open internal bore. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
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Dimensions
   Length       The length of a stock material such as a bar, rod, plate or tube.  
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Width / O.D.       The width is the outer diameter (O.D.) of stock shapes such as bars, plates, and tubes; or of fabricated components such as crucibles. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Thickness / Wall Thickness       The thickness of a stock form, tube wall, or other fabricated component. Stock forms include bars, rods, plates and tubes. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
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Mechanical & Physical Properties
   Max Use / Curie Temperature       This is the maximum temperature that the refractory or ceramic material can be exposed to momentarily without the degradation of structural or other required end-use properties.  The maximum use temperature is usually equal to the melt temperature of the metal, glass, or other material contained by the refractory body in the furnace, boiler or process unit. The Curie point is the temperature above which a material loses its unique magnetic, dielectric or piezoelectric property.  Ferrites or other magnetic materials lose their unique magnetic properties above the Curie temperature. The relative permeability drops to a value below 0.1 above the Curie temperature.  Magnetic susceptibility is inversely proportional to temperature. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Coeff. of Thermal Expansion (CTE)       The coefficient of linear expansion (CTE) is the amount of linear expansion or shrinkage that occurs in a material with a change in temperature. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Modulus of Elasticity       Young's modulus or the modulus of elasticity is a material constant that indicates the variation is strain produced under an applied tensile load.  Higher modulus of elasticity materials provides higher stiffness or rigidity. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Density       Density is the mass per unit area for a material.  The fired density is dependent on the theoretical density of 100% dense body and the actual porosity retained after processing.  
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
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Applications
   Applications:       
   Your choices are...         
   Electrical / HV Parts       Materials are used to fabricate electrical parts for high voltage or power applications. Examples include insulators, igniters or heating elements. 
   Electronics / RF-Microwave       Materials are suitable for electronics applications, including RF and microwave. Ferrites, garnets, alumina/sapphire and silicates have sufficient dielectric properties for use in electronic, radio frequency (RF) and microwave devices such as antenna radomes, patch antenna substrates, thin/thick film substrates and resonators. In addition, ceramics, glass and other non-metallic compounds or elemental semiconductors are used as substrates, wafer or dummy wafers in semiconductor manufacturing.  Ceramics are also used for wafer chucks or holders, wafer furnace boats and thin film chamber liners. 
   Other       Other unlisted, specialized or proprietary applications. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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Features
   Performance Features:       
   Your choices are...         
   Coated       Coated materials use or are available with a glaze (fused glass enamel), metallized coating, plastic coating or other protective coating. The coating may seal porosity, improve water or chemical resistance, or enhance joining to metals or other materials. This category also includes glass materials with an organic coating or film, or ceramic frit coating for spandrel applications. 
   Composite / Ceramic Matrix       Composite materials consist of a matrix material reinforced with a stronger or higher modulus second phase.  The second phase may be in the form of particulates, chopped fibers or continuous fibers.  The matrix may consist of a ceramic in CRC or ceramic matrix composites.  Ceramic or reinforcing fibers are commonly chosen with high modulus and/or strength. 
   Metallized / Silvered (Electrode, Mirror)       Ceramic surfaces are coated with a thin metal layer applied by plating, thin film, fired-on coating or other process. The coatings maybe continuous or selectively patterned on the surface or thru vias. In addition, float glass sheet or glass plate silvered to produce sheet mirror stock. 
   Machinable       Machinable ceramics can be machined in the green, glass or finished state without excessive chipping. Typically, non-machinable ceramics are ground to finished dimensions, often with super abrasive grinding wheels. 
   Modified / Doped       Materials are modified or doped with ions or additions of another ceramic to impart specific properties or improve processing. 
   Porous / Foam       Porous ceramics have a large degree of open or closed internal pores that provide a thermal barrier.  Certain ceramics have intrinsically low thermal conductivity, even in dense forms.  Reticulated foam refractories are useful in filtering molten metals and providing an extremely low density structure for insulation or other applications. 
   Sintered / Fired       Sintered or fired ceramics are homogenous materials in which individual grains or crystals are bonded to each other without the introduction of a foreign material (binder or cement) beyond small traces of dopants or sintering aids. These materials are densified through sintering or firing process. Sintered ceramics are sometime hot-pressed or hot isostatic pressed (HIP) to increase density close to theoretical. 
   Single Crystal       Single crystal materials consist of a monocrystal or single grain without any grain boundaries. The atoms maintain the same unit cell pattern and orientation throughout the material.  Single crystals of natural or man-made materials exhibit the desirable piezoelectric, optical or magnetic properties that cannot be attained with a polycrystalline ceramic material. An expanding variety of single crystals is being developed for acoustic, optical, wireless communication, and other applications. 
   Soft       Soft ferrites have low magnetization and are used in applications where the fields and magnetizations are cycled frequently and hysteresis losses are critical. Soft ferrites exhibit magnetic properties only when they are subject to a magnetizing force such as the magnetic field created when current is passed through wire surrounding a soft magnetic core.  Ceramic ferrites have a distinct advantage in some applications (magnetic cores) over ferromagnetic metals because their highly resistive nature eliminates or minimizes eddy current losses. Soft piezoelectrics are less resistant to stress induced depolarization compared to hard piezoelectrics. High sensitivity or "soft" ceramics feature high sensitivity and permittivity, but if over driven these materials can be damaged due to self-heating beyond their operating temperature range or Curie temperature. Soft piezoelectrics are used in various sensors, low-power motor-type transducers, receivers, and low power generators. 
   Hard       Hard ferrites or magnetic materials have high magnetization or remanence (B) and these materials are used as permanent magnets. Hard ferrites retain their magnetization after the applied magnetics is removed. Soft ferrites have low magnetization and are used in applications where the fields and therefore magnetizations are cycled frequently and hysteresis losses are critical. Ceramic ferrites have a distinct advantage in some applications (magnetic cores) over ferromagnetic metals because their highly resistive nature eliminates or minimizes eddy current losses. High power or "hard" piezoelectric ceramics can withstand high levels of electrical excitation and mechanical stress. These materials are suited for high voltage or high power generators and transducers.  Hard piezoelectric ceramics are more resistant to stress induced depolarization compared to soft piezoelectrics.  Hard piezoelectric materials are characterized by a very high load or distortion constant, low hysteresis and high Qm.    
   Specialty / Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary material features. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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Advanced Technical Ceramics Company
Advanced Technical Ceramics Company
Advanced Technical Ceramics Company