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Help with Electrodes and Electrode Materials specifications:

Type
   Type:       
   Your choices are...         
   Anode / Anode Material       Metals anodes are consumables used in a variety of electrochemical processes such as corrosion protection (sacrificial anodes) and electroplating (plating anodes). 
   Cathode / Cathode Material       Cathodes are negatively charged electrodes used in batteries, electrolysis systems, plating, electrowinning, electron emission, and other specialized processes. 
   Cathodic Emitters / Filaments       Cathodic, field or thermionic emitters are cathodes that emit electrons under high voltage or high temperature conditions. Thermionic emitters often consist of a tungsten or refractory metal filament. Lathanum boride emitters are now used, which provide longer life. 
   EDM Electrode       EDM electrodes and materials (wire or tube) are used in electrical discharge machining (EDM), a process that removes metal with an electrical discharge of very short duration and high current density between the electrode and the workpiece. 
   Electrical Contact       Components and materials consist of a high-conductivity, soft, and oxidation-resistant material, often with a second phase to provide anti-welding and/or arc-resistance. They are used in circuit breakers, relays, and EDM applications. 
   Specialty / Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary electrode types. 
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Electrode Materials
   Material:       
   Your choices are...         
   Aluminum / Aluminum Alloy       Aluminum and aluminum alloys are lightweight, non-ferrous metals with good corrosion resistance, ductility, and strength. Aluminum is relatively easy to fabricate by forming, machining, or welding. This metal is a good electrical and thermal conductor. Aluminum is also useful as an alloying element in steel and titanium alloys. Aluminum alloys are versatile metals with applications in almost every industrial and commercial segment. 
   Brass       Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. Brass materials are used to form EDM wire and small tubular electrodes. Brass does not resist wear as well as copper or tungsten, but is much easier to machine and can be die-cast or extruded for specialized applications. EDM wire does not need to provide EDM wear or arc erosion resistance since new wire is fed continuously during the EDM wiring cutting process. 
   Ceramic       Ceramic materials are non-metallic, inorganic compounds that include oxygen, carbon, or nitrogen such as aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, silicon nitride, and zirconium oxide ceramics. They have high melting points, wear resistance, and a wide range of electrical properties. 
   Carbon Graphite       Carbon graphite provides a cleaning action at low speeds. Carbon graphite was one of the first brush material grades developed and is found in many older motors and generators. It has an amorphous structure. 
   Graphite       Graphite brush-material grades are used in applications that require low friction. They are used at very-low current densities and very-high peripheral speeds. Graphite, flake graphite, and graphitic carbon have a hexagonal, crystalline structure that cleaves or shears easily, making graphite a soft material and effective lubricant. A form of carbon, graphite has an anisotropic hexagonal crystal structure. Graphite is the most commonly used EDM electrode material because of its good machinability, wear resistance, and low cost. Like carbon, graphite is a non-metallic substance with an extremely-high sublimation temperature which provides resistance to high-temperature arcs. Fine, grain-sized graphite tends to have better erosion and wear performance, but costs more. 
   Copper (Cu)       Copper is second only to silver in terms of bulk electrical conductivity. Copper has better strength than silver, but offers inferior oxidation resistance. Often, copper is used as a base metal in electrical contact and electrode applications. Copper is also used to manufacture EDM electrodes. Copper has better EDM wear resistance than brass, but is more difficult to machine than either brass or graphite. Copper is also more expensive than graphite. Copper is useful in the EDM machining of tungsten carbide, or in applications requiring a fine finish. 
   Copper Graphite       Copper graphite is a composite mixture of graphite and copper metal (~15 to 95%), resulting in a material with higher conductivity than pure graphite and lower friction or sticking than pure copper in sliding contact applications. Typically, the copper bonds the graphite together to form continuous, high-conductivity paths and a lower voltage drop. These characteristics allow copper graphite brushes to perform well under high current density and low voltage conditions.  Copper graphite is more expensive than other materials, but provides better conductivity and flexural strength than pure graphite. Copper's higher strength is useful for fabricating thin section EDM electrodes. 
   Copper Tellurium       Tellurium copper is useful in EDM machining applications requiring a fine finish. Tellurium copper has a machinability that is similar to brass and better than pure copper. 
   Titanium / Titanium Alloy       Titanium and titanium alloys are non-ferrous metals with excellent corrosion resistance, good fatigue properties, and a high strength-to-weight ratio. Titanium's properties result in the use of titanium and titanium alloys in aircraft or airframe parts, jet engine super-alloy components, corrosion resistant chemical process equipment (valves, piping, and pumps), prostheses or medical devices, and marine equipment. 
   Copper Tungsten       Copper tungsten materials are composites of tungsten and copper. They are produced using powder metallurgy processes. Copper tungsten is very expensive compared to other electrode materials, but is useful for making deep slots under poor flushing conditions and in the EDM machining of tungsten carbide. Copper tungsten materials are also used in resistance welding electrodes and some circuit breaker applications. 
   Copper Zirconium Diboride (CuZrB2)       Copper zirconium diboride materials are composites of zirconium diboride particles in a copper matrix. They are produced using powder metallurgy processes. These materials are very expensive, but have much lower erosion rates than copper or graphite electrode materials. Copper zirconium diboride has erosion rates similar to copper tungsten, but can provide higher machining rates. 
   Electrographite       Electrographite brush-materials are processed with a special high-temperature method that stabilizes the graphite. Electrographites are the most common graphite grades used in newer motors, generators, and electrical equipment. Electrographites provide good performance at higher levels of voltage, current density, and speed. 
   Magnesium / Magnesium Alloy (UNS M)       Magnesium and magnesium alloys are non-ferrous metals with low density (relatively high strength to weight ratio), good ductility, moderate strength, and good corrosion resistance. Magnesium and magnesium alloys are used in a variety of industries as well as in aircraft, marine, and power tool applications. 
   Molybdenum       Molybdenum is used to make small, whole EDM electrodes and EDM wire for specialized applications. Molybdenum is a refractory metal with good strength and arc erosion resistance due to the metal's high melting point (2610oC).  
   Palladium / Palladium Alloys       Palladium has good erosion resistance and high corrosion resistance with low material transfer. Palladium forms useful alloys with copper and ruthenium. Major drawbacks are palladium's high cost and the development of high contact resistance films in the presence of organic vapors. 
   Platinum / Platinum Alloys       Platinum has very high erosion and corrosion resistance with low contact resistance. Platinum forms useful alloys with iridium, ruthenium, and tungsten. Major drawbacks are platinum's high cost and the development of high contact resistance films in the presence of organic vapors. 
   Base Metal / Plated Base Metal?       Contact materials consist of a lower conductivity base-metal, such as brass or steel, that is plated or coated with a higher- conductivity silver, tin, or gold layer. Plated steel contacts may be sufficient for low-voltage applications such as the battery contacts in a flashlight. 
   Silver / Silver Alloy (Ag)       Silver has the highest conductivity of all metals. The high conductivity, softness or low hardness, and high resistance to oxidation make silver an excellent choice for contact materials. Silver is strengthened with copper additions, but at the sacrifice of conductivity. Fine silver is silver with very high purity (99.99% Ag). Pure or fine silver is too soft for most commercial applications, but the material is used as a starting component to form other silver based alloys. 
   Silver Cadmium Oxide (AgCdO)       Contact materials consist of cadmium oxide particles dispersed in a matrix of silver. The cadmium oxide provides excellent anti-welding and good erosion-resistance characteristics in high-cycle applications such as contactors or switches. 
   Silver Graphite (AgC)       Contact materials consist of graphite particles dispersed in a matrix of silver. Graphite has a high melting point (high refractoriness) and is insoluble in silver, resulting in superior anti-welding characteristics in high power and cycle applications such as circuit breakers. The graphite burns ups in the arcing or switching process and maintains a clean, low-resistivity contact surface. The silver typically bonds the graphite together, forming continuous high-conductivity paths and a lower voltage drop.  These characteristics allow silver graphite brushes to perform well under high current density and low voltage conditions. Silver is more oxidation-resistant than copper and can maintain cleaner contact surface during down times. 
   Silver Molybdenum (AgMo)       Contact materials consist of molybdenum particles dispersed in a matrix of silver. Molybdenum has a high melting point (high refractoriness) and is insoluble in silver, resulting in excellent arc erosion resistance and anti-welding characteristics in high-power applications such as circuit breakers. Detrimental high-resistivity films can form on silver-molybdenum contacts when exposed to certain organic fumes, however. 
   Silver Nickel (AgNi)       Contact materials consist of nickel particles dispersed in a matrix of silver. Nickel has a moderately high melting point and limited solubility in silver, resulting in only a small drop in bulk conductivity with improved arc erosion resistance. Silver-nickel contacts have better anti-welding characteristics than pure silver contacts, but offer inferior weld resistance compared to silver-graphite contacts. 
   Silver Tin Oxide (AgSnO2)       Contact materials consist of tin oxide particles dispersed in a matrix of silver. The tin oxide provides excellent anti-welding characteristics in high cycle applications such as contactors or switches. Silver tin oxide contact materials were developed as a replacement for silver cadmium oxide contacts. The use of cadmium raises health concerns, but tin is relatively benign in nature. 
   Silver Tungsten       Contact materials consist of tungsten carbide particles dispersed in a matrix of silver. Silver and tungsten carbides are mutually insoluble. Tungsten carbide provides excellent erosion resistance and good anti-welding characteristics in high-power applications.  For circuit breaker applications, silver tungsten carbide is better than silver tungsten because the formation of oxides leads to high contact resistance during high cycle applications. 
   Silver Tungsten Carbide (AgWC)       Contact materials consist of tungsten carbide particles dispersed in a matrix of silver. Silver and tungsten carbide are mutually insoluble. Tungsten carbide provides excellent erosion resistance and good anti-welding characteristics in high-power applications.  For circuit breaker applications, silver tungsten carbide is better than silver tungsten because the formation of oxides leads to high contact resistance during high cycle applications.  
   Silver Zinc Oxide (AgZnO)       Contact materials consist of zinc oxide particles dispersed in a matrix of silver. The zinc oxide provides anti-welding characteristics in high cycle applications such as contactors or switches. Silver zinc oxide contact materials were developed as an alternative to silver cadmium oxide contacts. The use of cadmium raises health concerns, but zinc is relatively benign in nature. 
   Tungsten       Tungsten is a refractory metal with elevated temperature strength. Tungsten has a high melting point (3410oC) and high resistance to arcs (low EDM wear), but also low conductivity. Tungsten's brittle nature and high melting point often results in fabrication methods that use grinding or powder metal techniques.  
   Zinc / Zinc Alloy (UNS Z)       Zinc and zinc alloys are moderately low melting, non-ferrous alloys widely used in the production of die cast components. 
   Specialty / Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary brush materials. 
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   Plating / Coating:       
   Your choices are...         
   Gold       Gold plating provides the best corrosion resistance and excellent contact resistance for high reliability, non-switching applications such as electronic connectors or microelectronic connections. 
   Nickel       Nickel plating provides good corrosion resistance and fair contact resistance for non-switching applications such as connectors or battery contacts. 
   Silver       Silver plating provides excellent oxidation resistance and excellent contact resistance for switching contact applications. 
   Tin       Tin plating provides fair corrosion resistance and good contact resistance for non-switching application such as connectors or battery contacts. 
   Specialty / Other       Other unlisted or specialized platings or coatings. 
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Shape / Form
   Form / Shape:       
   Your choices are...         
   Application Specific / Custom       Products are fabricated in the form of a custom or application-specific shape. 
   Assembly       An assembly is a contact, brush contact, or electrode attached to the carrier or support member (e.g. line strap, arm, plunger, or leaf spring). Welding, mechanical fastening or riveting, and brazing or soldering may be used to fabricate the contact or brush assembly. 
   Assembly - Plunger / Pogo       The contact or brush assembly consists of a contact with an integral spring that maintains enough contact force to ensure low contact resistance. 
   Bar Stock       The contact material is provided in the form of bar stock. 
   Block / Billet       Products are large blocks, billets, or other raw stock forms of graphite, copper, tungsten, tungsten-copper, brass wire, or other materials used to form EDM electrodes or arc furnace electrodes. 
   Tube / EDM Drilling Electrode       Products are solid rod or hollow tube-shaped electrodes for drilling or trepanning applications. Tube-shaped electrodes with a single bore or multiple bores are used for drilling or trepanning applications. 
   Pin / Probe       Small contact probes are used for testing circuit boards or other electronic components. This category also includes contacts in the form of small pins used in the fabrication of connectors. 
   Tip / Button       The contact tip or button consists of a shaped pad formed by powder metallurgy, a shearing strip, or a punched sheet. The pad may have nibs for welding or serrations for brazing. The tips often have a layer of braze preapplied in a furnace brazing operation. 
   Socket / Receptacle       Contacts are provided in the form of small sockets used in the fabrication of connectors. 
   Stamped / Spring Contact       Contacts are provided in the form of small stampings. Often stampings are used in the fabrication of connectors for electronic components. 
   Rod Stock       Products are solid rod stock. 
   Strip / Tape       Electrical contacts in strip form may have pre-attached contacts (welded or inlay contacts) as well as rivet holes. Strip electrical contact tape is specialized strip stock for welding or staking operations. Tape usually consists of a bimetal or multiple-layer clad strip. 
   Tapping Electrodes       Products are prefabricated for EDM machining of female or internal threads. 
   Wire       Products are provided as wire or wire stock. EDM wire is used in traveling-wire EDM machines. EDM wire does not need to provide EDM wear or arc erosion-resistance since new wire is fed continuously during the EDM wire-cutting process. 
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Size / Dimensions
   OD / Width        This is the outer diameter (OD) or width of a component or stock-form material such as a pad, block, strip, bar, plate, or tube.  This measurement may also represent the outer diameter or width of fabricated components such as electrodes or contact tips. According to ISO, EN or DIN brush standards, the brush width is the axial dimension, parallel to the motor or generator shaft.  
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Length       This is the length of a component or stock form material such as a pad, block, strip, bar, rod, plate, or tube. Typically, length is the largest dimension of the component. According to ISO, EN or DIN brush standards, the brush length is the radial dimension, or the dimension perpendicular to the commutator or slip ring. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Thickness       The thickness is typically the smallest dimension of a pad, block, strip, sheet, or plate material. According to ISO, EN, or DIN brush standards, thickness is defined as the dimension tangential or in the same rotational direction as the commutator or slip ring. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
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Properties
   Conductivity       Conductivity is the inverse of resistivity. Conductivity is often given as percent of a copper standard, which is 100% IACS, the acronym for International Annealed Copper Standard. 
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   Resistivity       Resistivity is the inverse of conductivity. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Tensile Strength (UTS)       Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) is the amount of applied stress required to cause a control specimen to fail under tensile load conditions. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Elongation (%):       Percent elongation provides an indication of a material's ductility. This is the amount of permanent deformation occurring after a controlled tensile test. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Current Density       Current density is the maximum current per unit of area that the contact, brush, or electrode is designed to handle in continuous use without excessive overheating, erosion, or sticking. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
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Features
   Features:       
   Your choices are...         
   Bimetal / Clad Overlay       Bimetals or clad metals are multilayer tape or button contacts that are formed using an overlay weld-cladding process or a top-lay brazing process to integrally bond two or more metals. Inlay or stripe contact materials are bimetal or multiple material clad structures that are formed when the contact material is inlaid flush-in, or edge-laid on a base-metal alloy strip. Top-lay bimetal products or tapes are made with braze to form a metallurgical bond between layers. 
   Plated / Coated       Contact, brush, or base metals are plated or coated with a conductive material. 
   Machined       Electrical contact or electrodes are manufactured to the desired shape and dimensional specifications through a machining process. 
   MIL-SPEC Certified       Contacts meet U.S. military specifications (MIL-SPEC). 
   Threaded       Contacts are threaded for attachment with a riveting process. 
   Wearband / Wear Sensor       Wearband (wear band) or wear sensors are used to monitor the wear of the brush and allow replacement in a timely and controlled manner. 
   Other       Other proprietary, unlisted, or specialized features. 
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Applications
   Applications / Industry:       
   Your choices are...         
   Battery / Fuel Cell       Electrodes or contacts are designed for battery or fuel cell applications. Battery contacts are interconnects between the battery and the system. The contact often consists of a low-cost base metal such as steel or brass with a plated layer of high-conductivity or corrosion-resistant metal. Battery or fuel cell electrodes, anode or cathodes are internal components used in generating electrical current through an electrochemical reaction with stored electrolytes or continuously supplied fuels. 
   Circuit Breakers       Electrodes or contacts are designed to withstand the high power and short circuit arcing conditions found in circuit breakers. 
   Contactors       Electrodes or contacts are designed to withstand high cycle, moderate power-duty conditions found in contactors. 
   Corrosion Control        Anode or electrode is designed to provide protection against corrosion through a galvanic cathodic protection (CP) system. Corrosion protection electrodes consist of a sacrificial anode or galvanic anode and impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) anodes. The sacrificial anode corrodes in preference to the material being protected. Zinc anodes on steel structures is a common example. ICCP anodes are used with a DC rectifier or power supply (DC current source), which impresses the current on the system blocking the electrochemical corrosion reaction. Impressed current anodes are also known as IP anodes, dimensionally stable anodes, or insoluble anodes. 
   Electronics (IC Packaging / Interconnect)       Electrodes or contacts are designed for electronics or interconnection applications including high thermal conductivity materials for integrated circuit (IC) packaging cores or heat sinks. 
   Electroplating / Electrolysis       Electrodes are designed for use in electroplating or electrolysis processes. 
   Generator       Electrodes, brushes, or contacts are designed for sliding contact applications in which the contacting members that provide the electrical path slide against each other (e.g., a brush sliding against commutators or slip rings in generators). 
   Motor       Electrodes, brushes, or contacts are designed for sliding contact applications in which the contacting members provide the electrical path by sliding against each other (e.g., a brush sliding against commutators or slip rings in motors). 
   OEM / New Equipment       Electrical brushes, contacts, or electrode components are designed or suitable for original equipment manufacturer (OEM) or new equipment applications. The components are often adjusted for the specific product or new equipment under development by the OEM. 
   Repair / Replacement       Electrodes, contacts, contact assemblies, or brush assemblies are designed for repair or replacement in various breakers, motors, or other electrical equipment while maintaining or improving performance characteristics. 
   Signals (Tachometers, Instrumentation)       Electrodes, brushes, or contacts are designed for transmission or pick-up of electrical signals in testing, probing, or instrumentation applications. Contacts for these applications require very low contact resistance and high reliability, such as the transmission of strain gage, thermocouple, and tachometer signals. The contacts must maintain a low contact resistance even under low power conditions to avoid the introduction of noise into the signal. Sliding contacts are used in conjunction with slip rings, conductor rails or other contact surfaces to maintain an electrical connection in mobile electrification applications. Depending on the application, sliding contacts may consist of metal contact alloy or carbon brush-type materials. In mobile electrification or rotary power applications, a carbon brush-based material is typically used. Silver alloy-based sliding contacts are used for signal or low power applications. Brushes are often described as a type of sliding contact. 
   Switches / Relays       Electrodes or contacts are designed to withstand very high-cycle, low-to-moderate power duty conditions found in switch and relay applications. 
   Specialty / Other       Other proprietary, unlisted, or specialized applications. 
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