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Contact Material:

Base Metal / Spring Material:

Plating / Coating:

Form / Shape:

OD / Width :

Length:

Thickness:

Current:

Conductivity:

Features:

Applications / Industry:

Help with Electrical Contacts specifications:

Material Types
   Contact Material:       
   Your choices are...         
   Molybdenum       Molybdenum is used to make small, whole EDM electrodes and EDM wire for specialized applications. Molybdenum is a refractory metal with good strength and arc erosion resistance due to the metal's high melting point (2610oC).  
   Palladium / Palladium Alloys       Palladium has good erosion resistance and high corrosion resistance with low material transfer. Palladium forms useful alloys with copper and ruthenium. Major drawbacks are palladium's high cost and the development of high contact resistance films in the presence of organic vapors. 
   Platinum / Platinum Alloys       Platinum has very high erosion and corrosion resistance with low contact resistance. Platinum forms useful alloys with iridium, ruthenium, and tungsten. Major drawbacks are platinum's high cost and the development of high contact resistance films in the presence of organic vapors. 
   Silver / Silver Alloy (Ag)       Silver has the highest conductivity of all metals. The high conductivity, softness or low hardness, and high resistance to oxidation make silver an excellent choice for contact materials. Silver is strengthened with copper additions, but at the sacrifice of conductivity. Fine silver is silver with very high purity (99.99% Ag). Pure or fine silver is too soft for most commercial applications, but the material is used as a starting component to form other silver based alloys. 
   Silver Cadmium Oxide (AgCdO)       Contact materials consist of cadmium oxide particles dispersed in a matrix of silver. The cadmium oxide provides excellent anti-welding and good erosion-resistance characteristics in high-cycle applications such as contactors or switches. 
   Silver Graphite (AgC)       Contact materials consist of graphite particles dispersed in a matrix of silver. Graphite has a high melting point (high refractoriness) and is insoluble in silver, resulting in superior anti-welding characteristics in high power and cycle applications such as circuit breakers. The graphite burns ups in the arcing or switching process and maintains a clean, low-resistivity contact surface. The silver typically bonds the graphite together, forming continuous high-conductivity paths and a lower voltage drop.  These characteristics allow silver graphite brushes to perform well under high current density and low voltage conditions. Silver is more oxidation-resistant than copper and can maintain cleaner contact surface during down times. 
   Silver Molybdenum (AgMo)       Contact materials consist of molybdenum particles dispersed in a matrix of silver. Molybdenum has a high melting point (high refractoriness) and is insoluble in silver, resulting in excellent arc erosion resistance and anti-welding characteristics in high-power applications such as circuit breakers. Detrimental high-resistivity films can form on silver-molybdenum contacts when exposed to certain organic fumes, however. 
   Silver Nickel (AgNi)       Contact materials consist of nickel particles dispersed in a matrix of silver. Nickel has a moderately high melting point and limited solubility in silver, resulting in only a small drop in bulk conductivity with improved arc erosion resistance. Silver-nickel contacts have better anti-welding characteristics than pure silver contacts, but offer inferior weld resistance compared to silver-graphite contacts. 
   Silver Tin Oxide (AgSnO2)       Contact materials consist of tin oxide particles dispersed in a matrix of silver. The tin oxide provides excellent anti-welding characteristics in high cycle applications such as contactors or switches. Silver tin oxide contact materials were developed as a replacement for silver cadmium oxide contacts. The use of cadmium raises health concerns, but tin is relatively benign in nature. 
   Silver Tungsten       Contact materials consist of tungsten carbide particles dispersed in a matrix of silver. Silver and tungsten carbides are mutually insoluble. Tungsten carbide provides excellent erosion resistance and good anti-welding characteristics in high-power applications.  For circuit breaker applications, silver tungsten carbide is better than silver tungsten because the formation of oxides leads to high contact resistance during high cycle applications. 
   Silver Tungsten Carbide (AgWC)       Contact materials consist of tungsten carbide particles dispersed in a matrix of silver. Silver and tungsten carbide are mutually insoluble. Tungsten carbide provides excellent erosion resistance and good anti-welding characteristics in high-power applications.  For circuit breaker applications, silver tungsten carbide is better than silver tungsten because the formation of oxides leads to high contact resistance during high cycle applications.  
   Silver Zinc Oxide (AgZnO)       Contact materials consist of zinc oxide particles dispersed in a matrix of silver. The zinc oxide provides anti-welding characteristics in high cycle applications such as contactors or switches. Silver zinc oxide contact materials were developed as an alternative to silver cadmium oxide contacts. The use of cadmium raises health concerns, but zinc is relatively benign in nature. 
   Tungsten       Tungsten is a refractory metal with elevated temperature strength. Tungsten has a high melting point (3410oC) and high resistance to arcs (low EDM wear), but also low conductivity. Tungsten's brittle nature and high melting point often results in fabrication methods that use grinding or powder metal techniques.  
   Base Metal / Plated Base Metal       Contact materials consist of a lower conductivity base-metal, such as brass or steel, that is plated or coated with a higher- conductivity silver, tin, or gold layer. Plated steel contacts may be sufficient for low-voltage applications such as the battery contacts in a flashlight. 
   Specialty / Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary brush materials. 
   Copper (Cu)       Copper is second only to silver in terms of bulk electrical conductivity. Copper has better strength than silver, but offers inferior oxidation resistance. Often, copper is used as a base metal in electrical contact and electrode applications. Copper is also used to manufacture EDM electrodes. Copper has better EDM wear resistance than brass, but is more difficult to machine than either brass or graphite. Copper is also more expensive than graphite. Copper is useful in the EDM machining of tungsten carbide, or in applications requiring a fine finish. 
   Copper Graphite       Copper graphite is a composite mixture of graphite and copper metal (~15 to 95%), resulting in a material with higher conductivity than pure graphite and lower friction or sticking than pure copper in sliding contact applications. Typically, the copper bonds the graphite together to form continuous, high-conductivity paths and a lower voltage drop. These characteristics allow copper graphite brushes to perform well under high current density and low voltage conditions.  Copper graphite is more expensive than other materials, but provides better conductivity and flexural strength than pure graphite. Copper's higher strength is useful for fabricating thin section EDM electrodes. 
   Copper Tungsten       Copper tungsten materials are composites of tungsten and copper. They are produced using powder metallurgy processes. Copper tungsten is very expensive compared to other electrode materials, but is useful for making deep slots under poor flushing conditions and in the EDM machining of tungsten carbide. Copper tungsten materials are also used in resistance welding electrodes and some circuit breaker applications. 
   Gold / Gold Alloy (Au)       Gold has extremely high corrosion, resulting in high-reliability electrical contacts even under light load conditions. Gold forms useful contact alloys with silver, copper, nickel, cobalt, platinum, and palladium. Major drawbacks are gold's high cost, poor sliding friction characteristics, and low erosion resistance. 
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Base Metal / Spring Material
   Base Metal / Spring Material:       
   Your choices are...         
   Aluminum       Aluminum is a lightweight and machinable metal with relatively high bulk electrical conductivity (~60% IACS).  Aluminum must be plated or coated with silver or tin for use in electrical connections because aluminum metal always forms a highly resistive oxide film. 
   Copper Beryllium (CuBe)       Copper alloyed with beryllium provides high strength and springiness through a precipitation-hardening mechanism, but maintains high bulk electrical conductivity.  
   Copper / Copper Alloy       Copper or copper alloys provide a base metal with high electrical and thermal conductivity. Copper and copper alloys do not have the oxidation resistance of silver or other noble metals, but their high thermal conductivity can help dissipate heat generated at the contact point. Alloying, especially where solid solution occurs, results in reduced electrical conductivity.  Brass and bronze, while strengthened, are less conductive than copper. Copper alloyed with beryllium develops high strength and springiness through a precipitation-hardening mechanism, but maintains high bulk electrical conductivity. Bronze is the general term for copper alloys, and include a wide variety of alloys such as tin bronze, silicon bronze, etc. Brass and bronze are often used as carrier base metals in contact or brush assembly applications. Plated brass and bronze alloy base metals are used in battery contacts and other low voltage applications. 
   Nickel / Monel®       Materials that consist of nickel or nickel-copper alloys provide good corrosion resistance. Nickel and copper exhibit continuous solid solubility, so bulk conductivity values will drop as alloying is increased. Monel®, a proprietary material, is a registered trademark of Special Metals Corporation. 
   Stainless Steel       Base alloys that consist of stainless steel provide good corrosion resistance. Stainless steels can be relatively strong depending on the specific alloy and temper or treatment. 
   Steel       Base alloys that consist of steel may require a plating or coating to prevent corrosion. Steels can be relatively strong depending on the specific alloy and temper or treatment. 
   Specialty / Other       Other proprietary, unlisted, or specialized base metal materials. 
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Plating / Coating Material
   Plating / Coating:       
   Your choices are...         
   Gold       Gold plating provides the best corrosion resistance and excellent contact resistance for high reliability, non-switching applications such as electronic connectors or microelectronic connections. 
   Nickel       Nickel plating provides good corrosion resistance and fair contact resistance for non-switching applications such as connectors or battery contacts. 
   Silver       Silver plating provides excellent oxidation resistance and excellent contact resistance for switching contact applications. 
   Tin       Tin plating provides fair corrosion resistance and good contact resistance for non-switching application such as connectors or battery contacts. 
   Specialty / Other       Other proprietary, unlisted or specialized plating material. 
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Shape / Form
   Form / Shape:       
   Your choices are...         
   Wire       Products are provided as wire or wire stock. EDM wire is used in traveling-wire EDM machines. EDM wire does not need to provide EDM wear or arc erosion-resistance since new wire is fed continuously during the EDM wire-cutting process. 
   Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary forms or shapes. 
   Pin / Probe       Small contact probes are used for testing circuit boards or other electronic components. This category also includes contacts in the form of small pins used in the fabrication of connectors. 
   Tip / Button       The contact tip or button consists of a shaped pad formed by powder metallurgy, a shearing strip, or a punched sheet. The pad may have nibs for welding or serrations for brazing. The tips often have a layer of braze preapplied in a furnace brazing operation. 
   Socket / Receptacle       Contacts are provided in the form of small sockets used in the fabrication of connectors. 
   Stamped / Spring Contact       Contacts are provided in the form of small stampings. Often stampings are used in the fabrication of connectors for electronic components. 
   Rod Stock       Products are solid rod stock. 
   Strip / Tape       Electrical contacts in strip form may have pre-attached contacts (welded or inlay contacts) as well as rivet holes. Strip electrical contact tape is specialized strip stock for welding or staking operations. Tape usually consists of a bimetal or multiple-layer clad strip. 
   Application Specific / Custom       Products are fabricated in the form of a custom or application-specific shape. 
   Assembly       An assembly is a contact, brush contact, or electrode attached to the carrier or support member (e.g. line strap, arm, plunger, or leaf spring). Welding, mechanical fastening or riveting, and brazing or soldering may be used to fabricate the contact or brush assembly. 
   Assembly - Plunger / Pogo       The contact or brush assembly consists of a contact with an integral spring that maintains enough contact force to ensure low contact resistance. 
   Bar Stock       The contact material is provided in the form of bar stock. 
   Block / Billet       Products are large blocks, billets, or other raw stock forms of graphite, copper, tungsten, tungsten-copper, brass wire, or other materials used to form EDM electrodes or arc furnace electrodes. 
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Specifications
   OD / Width        This is the outer diameter (OD) or width of a component or stock-form material such as a pad, block, strip, bar, plate, or tube.  This measurement may also represent the outer diameter or width of fabricated components such as electrodes or contact tips. According to ISO, EN or DIN brush standards, the brush width is the axial dimension, parallel to the motor or generator shaft.  
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Length       This is the length of a component or stock form material such as a pad, block, strip, bar, rod, plate, or tube. Typically, length is the largest dimension of the component. According to ISO, EN or DIN brush standards, the brush length is the radial dimension, or the dimension perpendicular to the commutator or slip ring. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Thickness       The thickness is typically the smallest dimension of a pad, block, strip, sheet, or plate material. According to ISO, EN, or DIN brush standards, thickness is defined as the dimension tangential or in the same rotational direction as the commutator or slip ring. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Current       The rated current is the maximum recommended current load that the material is capable of handling. For static contacts or connectors, rated current is the current that a device can carry continuously without overheating. For opening and closing contacts in devices such as circuit breakers, contactors, or switches, rated current is the current a device can carry while switching. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Conductivity       Conductivity is the inverse of resistivity. Conductivity is often given as percent of a copper standard, which is 100% IACS, the acronym for International Annealed Copper Standard. 
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Features
   Features:       
   Your choices are...         
   Bimetal / Clad Overlay       Bimetals or clad metals are multilayer tape or button contacts that are formed using an overlay weld-cladding process or a top-lay brazing process to integrally bond two or more metals. Inlay or stripe contact materials are bimetal or multiple material clad structures that are formed when the contact material is inlaid flush-in, or edge-laid on a base-metal alloy strip. Top-lay bimetal products or tapes are made with braze to form a metallurgical bond between layers. 
   Machined       Electrical contact or electrodes are manufactured to the desired shape and dimensional specifications through a machining process. 
   MIL-SPEC Certified       Contacts meet U.S. military specifications (MIL-SPEC). 
   Plated / Coated       Contact, brush, or base metals are plated or coated with a conductive material. 
   Threaded       Contacts are threaded for attachment with a riveting process. 
   Other       Other proprietary, unlisted, or specialized features. 
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Applications
   Applications / Industry:       
   Your choices are...         
   Battery Contacts (Low Power)       Electrodes or contacts are designed for battery or fuel cell applications. Battery contacts are interconnects between the battery and the system. The contact often consists of a low-cost base metal such as steel or brass with a plated layer of high-conductivity or corrosion-resistant metal. Battery or fuel cell electrodes, anode or cathodes are internal components used in generating electrical current through an electrochemical reaction with stored electrolytes or continuously supplied fuels. 
   Circuit Breakers       Electrodes or contacts are designed to withstand the high power and short circuit arcing conditions found in circuit breakers. 
   Contactors       Electrodes or contacts are designed to withstand high cycle, moderate power-duty conditions found in contactors. 
   Electronics (IC Packaging / Interconnect)       Electrodes or contacts are designed for electronics or interconnection applications including high thermal conductivity materials for integrated circuit (IC) packaging cores or heat sinks. 
   Generator       Electrodes, brushes, or contacts are designed for sliding contact applications in which the contacting members that provide the electrical path slide against each other (e.g., a brush sliding against commutators or slip rings in generators). 
   Motor       Electrodes, brushes, or contacts are designed for sliding contact applications in which the contacting members provide the electrical path by sliding against each other (e.g., a brush sliding against commutators or slip rings in motors). 
   OEM / New Equipment       Electrical brushes, contacts, or electrode components are designed or suitable for original equipment manufacturer (OEM) or new equipment applications. The components are often adjusted for the specific product or new equipment under development by the OEM. 
   Repair (Replacement / Retipping)       Electrodes, contacts, contact assemblies, or brush assemblies are designed for repair or replacement in various breakers, motors, or other electrical equipment while maintaining or improving performance characteristics. 
   Signals (Tachometers, Instrumentation)       Electrodes, brushes, or contacts are designed for transmission or pick-up of electrical signals in testing, probing, or instrumentation applications. Contacts for these applications require very low contact resistance and high reliability, such as the transmission of strain gage, thermocouple, and tachometer signals. The contacts must maintain a low contact resistance even under low power conditions to avoid the introduction of noise into the signal. Sliding contacts are used in conjunction with slip rings, conductor rails or other contact surfaces to maintain an electrical connection in mobile electrification applications. Depending on the application, sliding contacts may consist of metal contact alloy or carbon brush-type materials. In mobile electrification or rotary power applications, a carbon brush-based material is typically used. Silver alloy-based sliding contacts are used for signal or low power applications. Brushes are often described as a type of sliding contact. 
   Switches / Relays       Electrodes or contacts are designed to withstand very high-cycle, low-to-moderate power duty conditions found in switch and relay applications. 
   Specialty / Other       Other proprietary, unlisted, or specialized applications. 
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