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Thermal Spray Technology:

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Technology
   Thermal Spray Technology:       
   Your choices are...         
   Arc Spray (Electric Wire Arc)       Electric arc thermal spray processes use an electric arc heat source to melt the consumable coating material. An electric arc is struck between consumable wires that are continuously fed into the system. Compressed air or gas is applied behind the arc to atomize the melted consumable. 
   Cold Spray       Cold spray processes use a compressed gas stream flowing at ultrasonic velocities to propel and impact particles on a substrate. The impact causes plastic welding and cold microwelding of the particles to the surface. The process is akin to explosive welding on a microscale. 
   Flame Spray - Powder       In powder flame spray processes, a consumable powder is fed into a gun where a flame melts and atomizes the particles. The droplets are propelled toward a grit-blasted surface where they hit and solidify, forming a coating. 
   Flame Spray - Rod / Rokide®       In Rokide or rod flame spray processes, a consumable ceramic or metal rod is fed into a gun where a flame melts and atomizes the rod. The droplets are propelled toward a grit blasted surface where they hit and solidify, forming a coating. 
   Flame Spray - Wire       Arc flame spray processes use an oxy-fuel combustion heat source to melt the consumable wire material and propel the droplet toward the grit-blasted surface. The droplets hit and solidify on the surface. 
   HVOF       High velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray processes use a combusted gas flowing at hypersonic velocities to melt and propel particles to a substrate. Shock diamonds are usually visible in the exiting combustion stream.  The combustion heat partially melts or softens the particles; the impact of the particles on the substrate completes the melting or bonding process by converting the kinetic energy into heat.  HVOF systems typically use an axial feed. Axial feed systems inject the powder or coating media into the center of the stream, which can help eliminate the formation of unmelted particles in the coating. 
   Laser Cladding       In the laser cladding process, a laser beam is directed at a surface to form a molten pool. A powder or wire is then injected into the beam and melt pool. The process forms an integral metallurgical bond between the deposit and substrate with minimal & controlled heat input. The controlled heat input results in a clad layer with a smaller heat affected zone compared to other processes. 
   Plasma Spray       In plasma spray processes, a consumable powder is fed into a gun where plasma melts and atomizes the particles. The droplets are propelled toward a grit-blasted surface where they hit and solidify, forming a coating. 
   Plasma Transfer Arc (PTA)       In the plasma transferred arc (PTA) process, an arc formed between internal electrodes in a gun generates plasma, and then the arc is transferred between the gun and workpiece. Coating consumables or powders are fed into the weld pool where an overlay cladding, hardfacing, or hardface coating is formed. 
   RF / Induction Plasma        In RF or induction plasma systems, an electrical field is used to induce a current in and sustain a plasma heat source. A potential source of contamination is eliminated because electrodes are not used to transfer power to the plasma. 
   Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS)       Plasma spraying is done in a controlled atmosphere chamber where the atmosphere is typically a vacuum or a low pressure inert gas. The clean atmosphere of the chamber eliminates the possibility of contamination from air due to oxide or nitride inclusions. 
   Specialty / Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary thermal spray process or thermal spraying technology. 
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Size / Diameter
   Rod / Wire Diameter         
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   Particle Size         
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Material
   Material Type       
   Your choices are...         
   Ferrous / Iron Based       Ferrous metals and alloys are based on iron and include carbon steels, alloy steels, stainless steels, cast iron, maraging steel, and other specialty iron-based alloys. 
   Carbon Steel       Plain carbon steels are ferrous alloys based on iron, carbon, and small levels of other alloying elements such as manganese or aluminum. Carbon steels include soft, non-hardenable low carbon or mild steels such as 1020, as well as hardenable high carbon steels such as 1095.  Steel alloys are used in a wide variety of applications in almost every industrial segment. Mild steels and low carbon steels can be fabricated easily by machining, forming, casting, and welding. 
   Alloy Steel       Alloy steels are ferrous alloys based on iron, carbon, and high-to-low levels of alloying elements such as chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, and nickel. Alloy steels include hardenable high alloy steels, high strength low alloy steels, maraging steel, and other specialty steel alloys. Steel alloys are used in a wide variety of applications in almost every industrial segment. Low alloy steels can be fabricated easily by machining, forming, casting, and welding. 
   Stainless Steel       Stainless steels are highly corrosion resistant, ferrous alloys that contain chromium and/or nickel additions. There are three basic types of products: austenitic stainless steels, ferritic and martensitic stainless steels, and specialty stainless steels and iron superalloys. Austenitic stainless steels (AISI 300 / 200 Series) are highly corrosion resistant, ferrous alloys that contain chromium and nickel or manganese additions. Generally, austenitic stainless steels are more corrosion resistant than ferritic or martensitic stainless steels. Annealed, austenitic stainless steels are non-magnetic. Cold working is used to harden austenitic stainless steels because these alloys do not respond to conventional quench and temper hardening processes. Ferritic and martensitic stainless steels are highly corrosion resistant, ferrous alloys that contain chromium and/or carbon additions. Ferritic stainless steels are soft, easy to form metal alloys. Cold working is used to harden ferritic stainless steels because these alloys do not respond to conventional quench and temper hardening processes. Ferritic stainless steels are formed to fabricate mufflers and other sheet metal components that require good corrosion resistance. Martensitic stainless steels can be hardened by a conventional quench and temper operation. They are used for knife blades, tooling, or other applications that require good corrosion resistance combined with higher hardness and wear resistance. Specialty stainless steels and iron superalloys are highly corrosion resistant, ferrous alloys containing chromium, nickel, or other alloying additions to provide high strength or heat resistance. Duplex and precipitation hardening stainless steels belong in this category. 
   Tool Steel       Tool steels are wear resistant, ferrous alloys based on iron and carbon with high levels of alloying elements such as chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, and vanadium. Specific tool steel grades are available for die or cold work, hot work, high speed, and shock resistance applications. Tool steel alloys are used in a wide variety of applications that require wear resistance. They are difficult to fabricate in their hardened form and are usually machined using electrical static discharge (EDM), or ground to achieve the tolerances required for tooling applications. EDM machining can cut small or odd-shaped angles, intricate contours, and cavities in extremely hard steels and exotic metals. 
   Non-ferrous       Non-ferrous metals and alloys are not based on iron and include alloys of aluminum, copper, titanium, zinc, nickel, cobalt, magnesium, tungsten, molybdenum, precious metals, silver, gold, platinum, palladium, refractory metals, as well as many other metals and alloys. 
   Aluminum / Aluminum Alloy       Aluminum and aluminum alloys are lightweight, non-ferrous metals with good corrosion resistance, ductility, and strength. Aluminum is relatively easy to fabricate by forming, machining, or welding. This metal is a good electrical and thermal conductor. Aluminum is also useful as an alloying element in steel and titanium alloys.  Aluminum alloys are versatile metals with applications in almost every industrial and commercial segment. 
   Cobalt / Cobalt Alloy       Cobalt and cobalt alloys are non-ferrous, magnetic alloys with high strength and toughness, excellent corrosion and oxidation resistance, and high temperature strength. Cobalt can also be magnetized. Cobalt's properties result in the use of cobalt alloys in jet engine super-alloy components, prosthetic devices, magnets, and cutting tool binders. Cobalt is a useful alloying element in tool, maraging, and other alloy steels. 
   Copper, Brass or Bronze Alloy       Copper and copper alloys are non-ferrous metals with excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, good corrosion resistance, ductility, and strength. Copper alloys are relatively easy to fabricate by forming, casting, or machining. Pure copper is more difficult to weld, cast, or machine. Brass, tin bronze, leaded brass, beryllium copper, and zirconium copper are examples of copper alloys. Copper is useful as an alloying element in aluminum alloys and powder metal-based iron alloys.  Copper is a versatile metal with applications in many industrial and commercial segments. Copper's high electrical conductivity (100% IACS) makes it extremely useful in electrical and electronic applications. 
   Lead / Lead Alloy       Lead is a metal with a low melting point, high density, and low hardness. Lead and lead alloys are used in balancing weights, radiation shielding, battery electrodes, and solders. 
   Nickel / Nickel Alloy       Nickel and nickel alloys are non-ferrous metals with high strength and toughness, excellent corrosion resistance, and superior elevated temperature properties. Nickel can also be magnetized. Nickel's properties make it useful for jet engine super-alloy components, corrosion resistant chemical process equipment (valves, piping, and pumps), magnets and electrical resistance alloys, and heating elements. Nickel is also a useful alloying element in stainless, tool, maraging, and other alloy steels. 
   Silver / Silver Alloy       Silver has the highest conductivity of all metals. Its high conductivity, softness or low hardness, and high resistance to oxidation make silver an excellent choice for contact materials. Silver is strengthened with additions of copper, but this affects conductivity. Fine silver is silver with very high purity (99.99% Ag). Pure or fine silver is too soft for most commercial applications, but is used as a starting component to form other silver-based alloys. 
   Tin / Tin Alloy       Tin is a metal with a low melting point and low hardness. Tin and tin alloys are used in coatings as alloying additives, in battery electrodes, and as solders. 
   Titanium / Titanium Alloy       Titanium and titanium alloys are non-ferrous metals with excellent corrosion resistance, good fatigue properties, and a high strength-to-weight ratio. Titanium's properties result in the use of titanium and titanium alloys in aircraft or airframe parts, jet engine super-alloy components, corrosion resistant chemical process equipment (valves, piping, and pumps), prostheses or medical devices, and marine equipment. 
   Zinc / Zinc Alloy       Zinc and zinc alloys are moderately low melting, non-ferrous alloys widely used in the production of die cast components. 
   Ceramic       Materials made of nonmetallic minerals, such as clay, have been permanently hardened by firing at a high temperature. Most ceramics resist heat and chemicals. 
   Alumina       Alumina or aluminum oxide (Al2O3) is a compound of aluminum metal and oxygen, usually used in the alpha alumina structural form.  In its pure form, alumina is a white ceramic with high hardness; however, fully dense alumina can be translucent.  Alumina has found wide application due to its versatility and as a relatively low cost raw material. Depending on the purity and density, alumina is used for refractory tubes, industrial crucibles, analytical labware, dielectric substrates, wear components, refractory cements, and abrasives. Alumina's main drawback is its relatively poor thermal shock resistance due its higher coefficients of thermal expansion and lower thermal conductivity compared to other pure ceramic materials. 
   Alumina-Zirconia       Zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) and other zirconia-alumina ceramics are often used in wear applications as an intermediate solution between alumina and zirconia. ZTA offers increased fracture toughness over alumina at a lower cost, compared to pure or high zirconia ceramics. Depending on the purity and density, alumina is used for refractory tubes, industrial crucibles, analytical labware, wear components, refractory cements and abrasives.  
   Carbon / Graphite       Applications for carbon include its use as an alloying element with iron in the manufacture of steel, as brushes in electrical generators and motors, the use of colloidal graphite or carbon to coat surfaces (e.g. glass), in electrical assemblies to absorb microwaves and inhibit photoelectrons and secondary electrons, and the use of high purity carbon (graphite) in nuclear reactors to moderate neutrons. 
   Chromia / Chromite       Chromia ceramics or refractories are based on compounds chromium and oxygen.  
   Silicate / Fused Silica       Fused silica is a compound of silicon and oxygen. High purity, amorphous, fused silica is a high performance ceramic with very low expansion, remarkable thermal shock resistance, low thermal conductivity, excellent electrical insulation up to 1000°C, and excellent resistance to corrosion from molten metal and glass. 
   Titania / Titanate       Titania or rutile minerals (TiO2) are compounds consisting of titanium and oxygen. Titanates are compounds consisting of titanium, an additional cation (Ba, Al, Sr), and oxygen such as BaTiO3. Titania and titanates are usually used as additions to other refractories or for their specialized electrical or piezoelectric properties. 
   Yttria       Yttria or yttrium oxide (Y2O3) has an extremely high free energy of formation, which makes the oxide very stable and resistant to reaction with reactive molten metals. 
   Zirconia       Zirconia or zirconium oxide (ZrO2) is an extremely refractory compound of zirconium and oxygen. Zirconia may have additions of calcia, magnesia, or yttria to stabilize the structure into a cubic structure. Zirconia stabilized in the cubic crystal structure avoids cracking and mechanical weakening during heating and cooling.  Certain zirconia materials have the ability to transformation toughen (tetragonal to monoclinic phase change) under applied stress, and it is frequently used in wear applications requiring improved fracture toughness and stiffness over alumina.  Zirconia ceramics possess excellent chemical inertness and corrosion resistance at temperatures well above the melting point of alumina.  Zirconia is more costly than alumina, so it is only where alumina will fail. Zirconia has low thermal conductivity and it is an electrical conductor above 800°C. It is used to fabricate oxygen sensors or fuel cell membranes due to its unique ability to allow oxygen ions to move freely through the crystal structure above 600°C. Zirconia products should not be used in contact with alumina above 1600°C.  Depending on the purity and density, zirconia is used for refractory tubes, industrial crucibles, analytical labware, sensors, wear components, refractory cements, thermocouple protection tubes, furnace muffles, liners, and high temperature heating element supports. 
   Glass       Glass is a hard, brittle material consisting of a mixture of silicates in a noncrystalline form. Glass is often transparent or translucent. It is considered to be a cooled liquid rather than a true solid. 
   Plastic / LCP       Plastic refers to numerous organic, synthetic, or processed materials that are mostly thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers of high molecular weight and that can be made into objects, films, or filaments. LCP are liquid crystalline polymers, which exhibit superior properties, such as exceptional stiffness and thermal stability. 
   Metal Carbide (WC, Cr3C2)       Carbides are compounds of a metal or metalloid (B, Si) and carbon. Metal carbides are also known as hard metals such as tungsten carbide (WC), chromium carbide, (Cr3C2) titanium carbide (TiC), or tantalum carbide (TaC).   Metal carbides have high hardness and high hot hardness, which makes them useful for cutting tools, forming dies & tools, and other wear applications. Metal carbides often use a cobalt, nickel or intermetallic metal bond between grains (cemented carbides), which results in increases toughness compared a pure carbide or ceramic.   
   Specialty / Other         
   Abradable?       Abradable thermal spray coatings are used on the internal walls of jet engines and gas turbines to form a seal with blade tips. Abradable thermal spray coatings consist of a soft layer with low structural integrity. The blade tip preferentially wears or abrades into the softer thermal spray coating. Porosity, graphite, plastics bentonite, and boron nitride particle are used within a metal matrix. 
   Composite?       Composite materials are comprised of two or more substances that have distinct properties. When merged, each substance retains its own characteristics while imparting the entire composition with beneficial properties. For example, a plastic material in which a fibrous framework is embedded for greater structural stability. 
   Self-fluxing?       Self-fluxing thermal spray powders, wires, or rods do not require use of an additional flux in order to wet the surface. Self-fluxing thermal spray materials provide self-deoxidation and self-slag formation. 
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