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Type:

Condition / Structure:

Standards / Specifications:

UNS Number:

AISI Grade:

Shape / Form:

Hollow Stock?

Overall Width / OD:

Overall Length:

Overall Thickness:

ID:

Tensile Strength (UTS, Break):

Yield Strength (YS):

Elongation:

%

Tensile Modulus (E):

Processing & Finish:

Finish:

Applications:

Performance Features:

Help with Cast Irons specifications:

Types
   Type       
   Your choices are...         
   Ductile Iron (Nodular)       Ductile iron or nodular iron is a special grade of cast iron treated with inoculants or alloying additions while in the molten state to promote the formation in is spherulitic or sphere-shaped graphite rather than flake graphite. Ductile iron is also referred to as spherulitic graphite iron or S.G. iron. Gray iron contains large amounts of graphite in flake or platelet form resulting in lower toughness but high machinability. 
   Gray Iron       Gray iron contains large amounts of graphite in flake or platelet form resulting in lower toughness, but higher machinability compared to cast iron with a nodular or spherulitic graphite phase. The fractured surface of a broken gray iron component has a gray appearance. 
   White Iron / High Alloy       White cast irons have very high levels of additional alloying elements such as chromium that increase hardness, corrosion resistance, and wear properties. The alloying additions promote the formation of alloy carbides. Chromium carbides are harder and more wear resistant than iron carbides. 
   Specialty / Other       This refers to other unlisted, specialty or proprietary metals or alloy grades. These materials are based on a unique composition or alloy system, use a novel processing technology, or have properties designed for specific applications. 
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   Condition / Structure       
   Your choices are...         
   Austenitic       200-series austenitic steels are stainless steels that contain chromium, nickel, and manganese. 300-series austenitic steels are stainless steels that contain chromium and nickel. The stainless steels in each austenitic group have different compositions and properties, but share many common characteristics. They can be hardened by cold working but not by heat treatment. In the annealed condition, all are essentially nonmagnetic; although some may become slightly magnetic by cold working. They have excellent corrosion resistance, unusually good formability, and increased strength due to cold working. Type 304 or 18-8 stainless steel is the most widely used alloy in the 300-series austenitic group. It has a nominal composition of 18% chromium and 8% nickel. Type 316 stainless steel has an 18-8 composition modified with molybdenum to improve pitting corrosion resistance. Austenitic grades consist of 201, 301, 301, 303, 304, 304L, 305, 309, 310, 316, 316L, 317, 317L, 321, 347, and 348 as well as specialized or proprietary austenitic stainless steels. 
   Ferritic       Ferritic stainless steels are straight-chromium 400-series metals that cannot be hardened by heat treatment, and only moderately hardened by cold marketing. They are magnetic, have good ductility, and resistant against corrosion and oxidation. Ferritic stainless steels have chromium levels that range from 10.5% to 40% (typically 12% or more) and carbon levels less than 0.20%. Types 409, 430, 434, 430, 439, 442, and 446 belong in this category. Type 430 is a general-purpose ferritic stainless steel. 
   Martensitic       Martensitic stainless steels are straight-chromium 400-series metals that can be hardened by heat treatment. They are magnetic, resist corrosion in mild environments, and have fairly good ductility. Some can be heated to tensile strengths that exceed 200,000 psi (1379 MPa). Type 410 is a general-purpose alloy. Martensitic stainless steel grades include 410, 440, 440C, 403, 414, 416 and 420 as well as specialty and proprietary alloys. 
   Pearlitic       Pearlitic ferrous alloy have been slowly cooled to promote the formation of pearlite.  Pearlite consist of ferrite and cementite in a lamellar or layered microstructure.  Pearlite forms when an iron-carbon composition with a eutectoid composition (0.77% carbon) is slowly cooled below 727 C from an austenite matrix. Cementite is very hard iron carbide and ferrite is a softer, lower carbon, iron phase. Pearlitic gray iron is harder to machine compared gray or ductile iron grades with high levels of ferrite or graphitic grades. 
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Grades & Specifications
   Standards / Specifications       
   Your choices are...         
   AISI       Iron-based or ferrous alloys adhere to designations established by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) and the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). Examples of AISI-SAE steel grades are 1018, 4140, 9610 and 52100. 
   AMS       Metals or alloys meet specific Aerospace Material Specification (AMS) guidelines established by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). 
   ASTM / ASME       The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is a non-profit organization that provides a forum for the development and publication of voluntary standards for materials, products, systems, and services. Most specifications from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) are adopted from or are very similar to ASTM specifications. 
   Casting Grade (ICI, etc.)       Ingot or alloy shapes meet the requirements for casting stock from the Alloy Casting Institute (ACI), the American Die Casting Institute (ADCI), the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), and the Investment Casting Institute (ICI). 
   EN       European Norm or EuroNorm (EN) specifications have superseded several older, national designation systems such as BS, DIN, NS, and SS. 
   MIL-SPEC / Federal (QQS)       MIL-SPEC metals meet U.S. government standards and are suitable for military applications. QQ and QQS are prefixes used to designate specific metals. 
   JIS       Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) specify the standards used for industrial activities in Japan. The standardization process is coordinated by the Japanese Industrial Standards Committee and published through the Japanese Standards Association. 
   SAE       Products meet alloy grades, specifications, or designations established by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). 
   UNS       Metals or alloys meet the compositional standards in the Unified Numbering System (UNS), which was established by the ASTM, SAE, and several metal trade associations and societies. UNS identifies metals and alloys with a letter and five numbers. For example, carbon and alloy steels are identified as Gnnnnn, where G is the letter nnnnn is the number. 
   Specialty / Other       This refers to other unlisted, specialized, and OEM-specific (e.g., GE, P&W, Boeing, etc.) or proprietary material specifications. 
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   UNS Number         
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   AISI Grade       AIS grade number for the cast iron alloy. 
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Shape / Form
   Shape / Form:       
   Your choices are...         
   Semi-finished Shape / Mill Stock       Semi-finished metal shapes or stock shapes are suitable for part fabrication by machining, assembly, or other processes. Stock shapes are also used as feedstock for casting, forging, spinning, and other forming processes. Semi-finished metal shapes and stock include forms such as bar stock, rods, plates, strips, wire, shaped wire, hexagonal shapes, billets, sheets, and foil.  
   Fabricated Parts / Shapes       Materials are fabricated as custom or application-specific shapes. 
   Bar Stock       Materials are supplied or available as bars, rod stock, or billets. Bars or rods may have a round, square, rectangular/flat, hexagonal, or oval-shaped cross-section.  
   Disc / Blank       Discs or blanks are prepunched, preformed, precut or premachined shapes, which reduce scrap, prep time, and material handling requirements resulting in more efficient, cost-effective production. Disc or blanks are used to improve efficiency in stamping, drawing, metal spinning, machining, forging or forming operations. Milled and/or ground machine ready blanks have a tight-tolerance, our blanks eliminate the need for squaring before final machining the blank into the final part geometry. 
   Billet / Slab / Bloom       Billets, slabs, or blooms are massive, hot rolled, or forged blocks of metals or alloys. These forms can have semi-finished square, rectangular slab, or round cross-sections. Producing billets or blooms from ingots by forging is called cogging. Hot-rolling ingots is a process called blooming. Billets are used as feedstock for rolling operations and in the machining of large components. Slabs are semi-finished steel blocks, usually with widths that are at least twice their thickness. 
   Flats / Rectangular Bar       Materials are supplied or available as square bars, bar stock, or billets. Squares have a cross-section where two unequal sides proscribe a right angle between the surfaces.  
   Hex Bar Stock       Materials are supplied or available as hexagonal stock with a hex-shaped cross-section.  
   Ingot       Materials are supplied or available as ingots or casting stock product forms. 
   Plate       Materials are supplied or available as plates. Plates have a thickness of at least 0.250", but may be larger than 1/4". 
   Ring       Meta shape in the form of a donut shape or short hollow cylinder shape. Rolled rings (or seamless forged rings) are hollow metal cylinder shapes used as starting stock blanks for wheels or rail tires, housings, bearings, gears, valve seats, ring gaskets and couplings. 
   Roll       Metal or alloy rolls are large diameter cylindrical shapes formed by casting or forging. Rolls are often final machined, heat treated and ground to final precision requirements. Steel mill rolls are used for thermomechanical processing of metals in rolling mills. 
   Rod / Round Bar Stock       Materials are supplied or available as rod stock with a round cross-section. 
   Squares / Square Bar       Materials are supplied or available as square bars, bar stock, or billets. Squares have a cross-section where two equal sides proscribe a right angle between surfaces. 
   Other       This refers to other unlisted, specialized or proprietary forms or stock types. 
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   Hollow Stock?       Materials are supplied or available as tubes, pipes, or hollow stock with an open internal bore. 
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Size / Dimensions
   Overall Width / OD       This is the overall width or outer diameter (OD) of stock forms such as bars, plates, and tubes. Overall width is the average particulate diameter for raw materials such as powders, granules, and pellets. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Overall Length       This is the length of stock materials such as bars, rods, plates, and tubes. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Overall Thickness       This is the overall thickness of stock forms, tube walls, or other fabricated components. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   ID       This is the internal diameter (ID) or inner dimension of tubes or other hollow, stock shapes. 
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Mechanical Properties
   Tensile Strength (UTS, Break)       Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) at break is the maximum amount of stress required to fail or break the material under tension-loading test conditions.   
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   Yield Strength (YS)       Yield strength (YS) is the maximum amount of stress required to deform or impart permanent plastic deformation (typically of 0.2%) in the material under tension-loading test conditions. The yield point occurs when elastic or linear stress-strain behavior changes to plastic or non-linear behavior. Ductile materials typically deviate from Hooke's law or linear behavior at some higher stress level. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Elongation       Elongation is the percent amount of deformation that occurs during a tensile test or other mechanical test. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Tensile Modulus (E)       Tensile modulus, Young's modulus, or the modulus of elasticity (E) is a material constant that indicates the variation in strain produced under an applied tensile load. Materials with a higher modulus of elasticity have higher stiffness or rigidity. 
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Processing & Finish
           
   Your choices are...         
   Centrifugal Cast       Centrifugally casting is used to produce axially or radially symmetric hollow parts such as large pipes, wheels, pulleys, nozzles, rings, rolls, rollers, cylinder liners, coil sleeves, bearing bushings, pulverizing rolls, or other cylindrical shapes. The internal diameter of the mold is coated with a refractory ceramic layer. In the centrifugally casting process, a mold is spun up to radial speeds of 300 to 3000 RPM by driving rollers. Molten metal is then cast into the center of the mold until the desired thickness is attained, then the casting is cooled, stopped and removed from the mold. A double pouring process can be used to produce an outer layer with higher hardness and wear resistance around an inner layer of high toughness and improved machinability. 
   Continuous Cast / Direct Chill       Continuous cast semi-finished metal stock can include blooms, rectangular slabs, for subsequent rolling into plate or sheet, square or circular cross-sections for long products, thin slabs, and beam blank or “dog-bone” shapes, for rolling into I or H beams. In continuous casting, the bottom of a furnace or ladle is tapped and molten metal transferred into a tundish. The metal in the tundish is poured from a submerged entry nozzle into a water cooled mold, which is open on the top and bottom. Additional molten metal is poured into the top of the mold as solidified strand is withdrawn. Molten metal can also be continuously cast into the nip between twin water cooled metal rolls for the production of continuously cast metal strip.  Continuous casting is the most cost- and energy- efficient method to mass-produce high quality semi-finished metal products. 90% of the carbon steel, alloy steel and stainless steel produced today is processed using the continuously casting technology. In semi-continuous casting of ingots or billets, metal is poured into a direct chill mold where the bottom of the ingot is slowly withdrawn as molten metal solidifies. 
   Static Cast       Cast ingots, slabs, pigs, sows, or billets are formed by casting molten metal into molds with the shape or cross sectional shape of the end product. In static mold casting, the mold is closed at the bottom. 
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   Finish       
   Your choices are...         
   Annealed       These metals and alloys are provided in an annealed or softened condition. Some materials anneal during thermal-mechanical processing depending on the process temperature range and alloy type. 
   Hardened / Heat Treated       Hardened or heat-treated metals and alloys are provided in a hard or hardened condition. Higher hardness or strength levels can be developed through work hardening (mechanical deformation), conventional quench and tempering hardening, aging, precipitation hardening, and other specialized heat treating processes. 
   Coated       Metal or alloy stock or shapes are coated with a wax, oil or lubricant coating for subsequent processing operations.  Stainless steels do not typically require or benefit from a protective paint or coating because a thin coherent oxide film forms on the surface of the alloy that protects the metal from corrosion. 
   Galvanized       Galvanized steel sheets and products are protected with an electrodeposited or dip zinc layer. The zinc and steel form a galvanic cell under wet or moist conditions. The zinc layer has a lower electro-galvanic potential compared to steel causing the zinc to be attacked and sacrificed while protecting the underlying steel. 
   Ground / Machined       The surface of the metal shape or stock is ground or machined, resulting in a better finish compared to the processed stock. The processed condition can be rolled, cast, extruded, forged, compacted, and sintered. 
   Polished       The surface of the metal shape or stock is polished or buffed, which provides a better finish compared to the rolled, ground, machined, or other processed stock conditions. Polishing uses fine grit, loose or fixed abrasive products to refine the surface finish to a mirror-like condition. Loose abrasive media could include abrasive slurries, polishing compounds, and lapping compounds. Fixed polishing abrasives could include lapping films, fine grit discs or belts, honing tools, and superfinishing products. 
   Other       Other unlisted proprietary, patented, or specialized finish, processing, heat treatment, or temper condition. 
   Anti-slip / Textured       Plates, bars, angles, or other stock metal shapes have a texture or non-slip surface such as an embossed diamond pattern or an anti-slip abrasive coating. 
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Applications
   Applications:       
   Your choices are...         
   Aerospace / Aircraft (AQ)       Products are designed and rated for use in aerospace, aircraft, airport, space vehicle, satellite, rocket, interplanetary explorer, and space station applications. Aircraft quality (AQ) steels and alloys are manufactured to aerospace industry AMS 2301 standard specifications of cleanliness, chemistry, strength and mill traceability as well as exacting steelmaking, rolling, and testing practices.  Mission critical and highly stressed aircraft parts are fabricated from aircraft quality (AQ) steel alloys. Aircraft quality alloys are also used in non-aerospace applications for highly stressed, mission critical components involving additional stringent inspection requirements such as macro-etch limits, magnetic particle, or other NDT tests for inclusions or other defects. Certified aircraft quality steels have paperwork indicating the alloy is what it is supposed to be and what steel mill produced the product. 
   Abrasive / Erosive Wear Protection       Materials resist damage by abrasion or erosion, and protect underlying surfaces from abrasive or erosive wear. 
   Alternative / Renewable Energy       Companies evaluated alternative or renewable energy production products such as photovoltaic (PV) cells, solar power systems, wind turbines, hydro turbines, and flywheel power systems. 
   Automotive / Vehicular       Products are designed and rated for use in automobiles, trailer trucks, trailers, railcars, off-road trucks and other vehicles. 
   Armor / Ballistic Protection       Materials are used to protect equipment, vehicles, and/or personnel against damage from blasts, explosions, bullets, and other high-speed projectiles. 
   Bearings (BQ)       Bearing quality steels and alloys are produced in accordance with ASTM A 534, A 295, and A 485. Bearing quality steels are produced under restricted melting and special teeming, heating, rolling, and conditioning methods to meet the rigid bearing quality steel requirements. Bearing quality standards typically applies to alloy steel bars and tubes intended for the manufacture of races and balls or rollers in anti-friction bearings, oil well perforating gun bullets, dies, punches, shear and cutting blades, and cam rollers. Bearing quality level steels are usually produced from standard alloy carburizing grades and high-carbon chromium grades such as 52100 alloy steel. 
   Battery / Fuel Cell       Material is suitable for use in battery or fuel cell as a collector plate, proton exchange membrane, or catalyst. 
   Biocompatible / Biomaterial       Biomaterials are specially formulated or designed to have suitable biocompatibility for biotechnology and medical applications. 
   Chemical / Materials Processing       Materials provide high temperature and/or corrosion resistance, making them suitable for chemical-processing applications.  
   Construction & Building / Architectural       Materials are designed or suitable for use in architectural, building, and construction applications.  
   Electrical / HV Parts       Materials are used to fabricate electrical parts for high voltage or power applications. 
   Electronics / RF-Microwave       Materials are suitable for electronics applications, including RF and microwave circuit, antennas, RMI and EFI shielding, and microelectronics interconnect. 
   Marine       Products are designed for use in marine applications aboard ships or in offshore settings. Uses include fishing, mooring, docks, jetties, platforms, piers, and ship construction such as hull and deck plates. 
   Mining       Alloys engineered for use in very corrosive and abrasive applications around mines and mining operations. Mining industry operation include excavation, water and slurry pumping, earth moving, and drilling under conditions where abrasive, corrosive, and erosive minerals, rocks, and soils are handled. 
   MRO (Repair / Resurfacing)       Metals and alloys are suitable for repair, hole or gap filling, patching, refinishing, resurfacing, and other maintenance and repair (MRO) applications.  
   Nuclear       Metals and alloy engineered for parts, products, capital equipment, or facilities used in the nuclear or utility industries. Nuclear grade stainless are manufactured to higher chemistry and cleanliness standards. Zirconium alloys such as Zircalloy are an excellent tube material choice for containment of uranium dioxide pellets because zirconium has a low neutron capture cross section. Inversely, hafnium has a high neutron capture cross section (neutron absorber) and is commonly used as a control rod alloy in nuclear reactors.  
   Oil and Gas       Metals and alloys are suitable for applications that can handle exposure to corrosive sour gases, erosive drilling and mining fluids, and abrasive minerals. Oil and gas industry applications entail extracting, synthesizing or processing oils, gases, or fuels such as well drilling, well maintenance, pumping, oil refining, re-refining, recovery, and recycling. Alloy products are designed and rated for use in oil wells and platforms, natural gas wells, refineries and in other energy exploration and extraction applications. 
   Pressure Vessel (PVQ)       Steels and stainless steels suitable for steam boiler, pressure vessel, and process reactor applications. Pressure vessel quality (PVQ) steels are manufactured to ASTM/ASME standards concerning chemical composition, mechanical properties, toughness, weldability, and hydrogen induced crack resistance. Pressure vessel quality steels are manufactured to higher cleanliness and quality standards compared to commercial grade steels. 
   Resistance Alloy / Heating       Metals and alloys engineered to have properties suitable for resistance heating element application. These metals and alloys are known as resistance alloys. Nichrome and Kanthal are common nickel based resistance alloys. Resistance alloys must have sufficient internal electrical resistance, high melting point, and sufficient elevated temperature strength. Resistance can vary with temperature and ideally the resistance is uniform in alloys to minimize variations with temperature or provide a linear change. In non-reducing, oxygen rich oven, furnace, and resistance heating applications, the resistance alloy must have high temperature oxidation resistance. In very high temperature vacuum and inert atmosphere furnaces, tungsten and molybdenum are commonly used.   
   Structural       Structural applications require ceramic components with a suitable strength, elastic modulus, toughness, and other mechanical properties. Metals can have much higher ductility and toughness compared to metals. 
   Wear Parts / Tooling       Wear-resistant metals are used in industrial products such as dies, molds, tooling, automotive rings, pump parts, valve seals/seats, stops, brake parts, clutch parts, and machining guides. 
   Other       Other unlisted, specialized or proprietary applications. 
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Features
   Performance Features       
   Your choices are...         
   Corrosion Resistant       These alloys are designed or suitable for service applications that require corrosion resistance. 
   Free Machining       Alloys contain additions of lead, selenium, sulfur or other free-machining additives that help break up chips during the machining process.  
   Heat Resistant       Alloys are designed or suitable for service applications that require heat resistance. 
   Wear Resistant       Alloys are designed or suitable for service applications that require wear or erosion resistance. 
   Shock / Impact Resistant       Alloys are designed or suitable for service applications that require shock or impact resistance. 
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