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Metal / Alloy Types:

Clad / Bimetal?

Controlled / Low Expansion Alloy?

Low Alloy / HSLA?

Metal Matrix Composite?

Soft Magnetic Alloy?

Standards / Specifications:

Shape / Form:

Coil Stock?

Hollow Stock?

Overall Width / OD:

Overall Length:

Overall Thickness:

ID:

Tensile Strength (UTS, Break):

Yield Strength (YS):

Elongation:

%

Tensile Modulus (E):

Applications:

Features:

Specialty Features:

Help with Ferrous Metals and Iron Alloys specifications:

Types
   Metal / Alloy Types:       
   Your choices are...         
   Carbon Steel (UNS G)       Plain carbon steels are ferrous alloys based on iron, carbon, and small levels of other alloying elements such as manganese or aluminum. Carbon steels include soft, non-hardenable low carbon or mild steels such as 1020, as well as hardenable high carbon steels such as 1095.  Steel alloys are used in a wide variety of applications in almost every industrial segment. Mild steels and low carbon steels can be fabricated easily by machining, forming, casting, and welding. 
   Alloy Steel  (UNS G)       Alloy steels are ferrous alloys based on iron, carbon, and high to low levels of alloying elements such as chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, and nickel. Alloy steels include hardenable high alloy steels, high strength low alloy steels, maraging steel, and other specialty steel alloys. Steel alloys are used in a wide variety of applications in almost every industrial segment. Low alloy steels can be fabricated easily by machining, forming, casting, and welding. 
   Stainless Steel  (UNS S)       Stainless steels are highly corrosion resistant, ferrous alloys that contain chromium and/or nickel additions. There are three basic types of products: austenitic stainless steels, ferritic and martensitic stainless steels, and specialty stainless steels and iron superalloys. Austenitic stainless steels (AISI 300 / 200 Series) are highly corrosion resistant, ferrous alloys that contain chromium and nickel or manganese additions. Generally, austenitic stainless steels are more corrosion resistant than ferritic or martensitic stainless steels. Annealed austenitic stainless steels are non-magnetic. Cold working is used to harden austenitic stainless steels because these alloys do not respond to conventional quench and temper hardening processes. Ferritic and martensitic stainless steels are highly corrosion resistant, ferrous alloys that contain chromium and/or carbon additions. Ferritic stainless steels are soft, easy to form metal alloys. Cold working is used to harden ferritic stainless steels because these alloys do not respond to conventional quench and temper hardening processes. Ferritic stainless steels are formed to fabricate mufflers and other sheet metal components that require good corrosion resistance. Martensitic stainless steels can be hardened by a conventional quench and temper operation. Martensitic stainless steels are used for knife blades, tooling, or other applications that require good corrosion resistance combined with higher hardness and wear resistance. Specialty stainless steels and iron superalloys are highly corrosion resistant, ferrous alloys containing chromium, nickel, or other alloying additions to provide high strength or heat resistance. Duplex and precipitation hardening stainless steels belong in this category. 
   Tool Steel (UNS T)       Tool steels are wear resistant, ferrous alloys based on iron and carbon with high levels of alloying (hardenability and property modifying) elements such as chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, and vanadium. Specific tool steel grades are available for die or cold work, hot work, high speed, and shock resistance applications. Tool steel alloys are used in a wide variety of applications that require wear resistance. They are difficult to fabricate in their hardened form and are usually EDM-machined or ground to achieve the tolerances required for tooling applications. EDM is an acronym for electrical discharge machining. This is a process that can cut small or odd-shaped angles, intricate contours, and cavities in extremely hard steels and exotic metals. 
   Cast Iron  (UNS F)       Cast iron is an iron alloy with high amounts of carbon. This category includes ductile iron, gray iron, and white cast iron grades. Differences in grades are due to variations in composition and processing. 
   Cast Steel (UNS J)       Cast steel alloy grades are produced by pouring molten iron into a mold. 
   Hardenability Specified / H-Steel (UNS H)       AISI-SAE H-steels are produced to specified hardenability bands. AISI is the American Iron and Steel Institute, a North American trade association. SAE is the Society of Automotive Engineers. 
   Mechanical Property Specified (UNS D, Structural)       UNS D steels have specified mechanical properties. 
   Other / Miscellaneous Ferrous Alloy (UNS K)       Other miscellaneous ferrous alloys have specialized or proprietary compositions or properties. Examples include maraging steels, high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels, and iron-based superalloys. 
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   Clad / Bimetal?       The metal or alloy stock is a clad or bimetal material, which consists of two or more different alloys bonded integrally together. 
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   Controlled / Low Expansion Alloy?       Alloys are engineered to provide controlled or low thermal expansion characteristics. These low thermal expansion characteristics are useful in metal-to-glass or ceramic sealing applications. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
   Low Alloy / HSLA?       High strength low alloy (HSLA) steels are carbon steels with small amounts of alloying additions.  The strengthening from the alloy additions allow thinner sections of material compared what would be required with a plain carbon steel. In many automotive and transporation applications, the use of HSLA steel results in lower overall vehicle weight. 
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   Metal Matrix Composite?       Metal matrix composites have a composite, reinforced metal, or alloy matrix filled with a second component. The second component of reinforcement may be in particulate, chopped fiber, continuous filament, or fabric form. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
   Soft Magnetic Alloy?       Soft magnetic alloys are easily magnetized and demagnetized.  These alloys are used in motor, transformer, electromagnets, magnetic bearing, solenoid, GFCI, relays, generators, tape heads, and shielding applications in sheet, lamination, and core configurations. Depending on the specific application, alloys are selected based on their permeability, resistivity, core loss, and flux density or saturation characteristics 
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Grades & Specifications
   Standards / Specifications       
   Your choices are...         
   AISI       Iron-based or ferrous alloys adhere to designations established by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) and the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). Examples of AISI-SAE steel grades are 1018, 4140, 9610 and 52100. 
   AA / IADS       Metals or alloys meet compositional standards established by the Aluminum Association of the United States (AA), which classifies materials based on the International Alloy Designation System (IADS).  
   AMS       Metals or alloys meet specific Aerospace Material Specification (AMS) guidelines established by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). 
   ASTM / ASME       The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is a non-profit organization that provides a forum for the development and publication of voluntary standards for materials, products, systems, and services. Most specifications from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) are adopted from or are very similar to ASTM specifications. 
   Casting Grade (ICI, etc.)       Ingot or alloy shapes meet the requirements for casting stock from the Alloy Casting Institute (ACI), the American Die Casting Institute (ADCI), the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), and the Investment Casting Institute (ICI). 
   CDA       Metals or alloys meet compositional standards established by the Copper Development Association (CDA) of the United States. 
   EN       European Norm or EuroNorm (EN) specifications have superseded several older, national designation systems such as BS, DIN, NS, and SS. 
   MIL-SPEC / Federal (QQS)       MIL-SPEC metals meet U.S. government standards and are suitable for military applications. QQ and QQS are prefixes used to designate specific metals. 
   JIS       Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) specify the standards used for industrial activities in Japan. The standardization process is coordinated by the Japanese Industrial Standards Committee and published through the Japanese Standards Association. 
   SAE       Products meet alloy grades, specifications, or designations established by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). 
   UNS       Metals or alloys meet the compositional standards in the Unified Numbering System (UNS), which was established by the ASTM, SAE, and several metal trade associations and societies. UNS identifies metals and alloys with a letter and five numbers. For example, carbon and alloy steels are identified as Gnnnnn, where G is the letter nnnnn is the number. 
   Specialty / Other       This refers to other unlisted, specialized, and OEM-specific (e.g., GE, P&W, Boeing, etc.) or proprietary material specifications. 
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Shape / Form
   Shape / Form:       
   Your choices are...         
   Profile / Structural Shape       Profiles and structural shapes include shaped stock with uniform cross sections such tees, angles, channels, I-beams, rectangular tubes, and other cross sectional shapes. These shapes are manufactured through extrusion, continuous casting, roll forming, or other processes. 
   Angle       Material is supplied or available in a stock form with an "L" or angle-shaped cross section. 
   Beam / I-Beam       Material is supplied or available in a stock form with an I-beam or I-shaped cross-section. 
   Channel       This material is supplied or available in a stock form with a "C" or channel shaped cross-section. 
   Tee       This material is supplied or available in a stock form with a "T" or T-shaped cross-section. 
   Billet / Slab / Bloom       Billets, slabs, or blooms are massive, hot rolled, or forged blocks of metals or alloys. These forms can have semi-finished square, rectangular slab, or round cross-sections. Producing billets or blooms from ingots by forging is called cogging. Hot-rolling ingots is a process called blooming. Billets are used as feedstock for rolling operations and in the machining of large components. Slabs are semi-finished steel blocks, usually with widths that are at least twice their thickness. 
   Bar Stock       Materials are supplied or available as bars, rod stock, or billets. Bars or rods may have a round, square, rectangular/flat, hexagonal, or oval-shaped cross-section.  
   Flats / Rectangular Bar       Materials are supplied or available as square bars, bar stock, or billets. Squares have a cross-section where two unequal sides proscribe a right angle between the surfaces.  
   Squares / Square Bar       Materials are supplied or available as square bars, bar stock, or billets. Squares have a cross-section where two equal sides proscribe a right angle between surfaces. 
   Foil       Foil is very thin sheet or strip stock with a thickness of less than 0.006".   
   Hex Bar Stock       Materials are supplied or available as hexagonal stock with a hex-shaped cross-section.  
   Ingot       Materials are supplied or available as ingots or casting stock product forms. 
   Rod / Round Bar Stock       Materials are supplied or available as rod stock with a round cross-section. 
   Semi-finished Shape / Mill Stock       Semi-finished metal shapes or stock shapes are suitable for part fabrication by machining, assembly, or other processes. Stock shapes are also used as feedstock for casting, forging, spinning, and other forming processes. Semi-finished metal shapes and stock include forms such as bar stock, rods, plates, strips, wire, shaped wire, hexagonal shapes, billets, sheets, and foil.  
   Fabricated Parts / Shapes       Materials are fabricated as custom or application-specific shapes. 
   Plate       Materials are supplied or available as plates. Plates have a thickness of at least 0.250", but may be larger than 1/4". 
   Powder       Materials are available as powders, granules, or flakes. 
   Sheet       Materials can be supplied or available as sheets or foil. Sheets have a thickness between 0.006" and 0.250" and are 24" (609.6 mm) or larger in width. Typically, sheets are formed to precise thicknesses and/or width requirements. Hardness and surface finish properties can be controlled by the rolling process, which usually consists of cross-rolling. 
   Strip       Materials are supplied or available as strips. Strips are usually 0.187" (3/16", 4.76 mm) or less in thickness and under 24" (609.6 mm) in width. Typically, strips are formed to precise thicknesses and/or width requirements. Hardness and surface finish properties can be controlled by the rolling process, which usually consists of cross-rolling. 
   Wire / Shaped Wire       Materials are supplied or available as round wire, shaped wire, or flattened wire. Wire is less than 0.375" in diameter. 
   Other       This refers to other unlisted, specialized or proprietary forms or stock types. 
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   Coil Stock?       Materials are supplied or available as coils, reels, or other wound stock forms. 
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   Hollow Stock?       Materials are supplied or available as tubes, pipes, or hollow stock with an open internal bore. 
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Size / Dimensions
   Overall Width / OD       This is the overall width or outer diameter (OD) of stock forms such as bars, plates, and tubes. Overall width is the average particulate diameter for raw materials such as powders, granules, and pellets. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Overall Length       This is the length of stock materials such as bars, rods, plates, and tubes. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Overall Thickness       This is the overall thickness of stock forms, tube walls, or other fabricated components. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   ID       This is the internal diameter (ID) or inner dimension of tubes or other hollow, stock shapes. 
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Mechanical Properties
   Tensile Strength (UTS, Break)       Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) at break is the maximum amount of stress required to fail or break the material under tension-loading test conditions.   
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Yield Strength (YS)       Yield strength (YS) is the maximum amount of stress required to deform or impart permanent plastic deformation (typically of 0.2%) in the material under tension-loading test conditions. The yield point occurs when elastic or linear stress-strain behavior changes to plastic or non-linear behavior. Ductile materials typically deviate from Hooke's law or linear behavior at some higher stress level. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Elongation       Elongation is the percent amount of deformation that occurs during a tensile test or other mechanical test. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Tensile Modulus (E)       Tensile modulus, Young's modulus, or the modulus of elasticity (E) is a material constant that indicates the variation in strain produced under an applied tensile load. Materials with a higher modulus of elasticity have higher stiffness or rigidity. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
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Applications
   Applications:       
   Your choices are...         
   Aerospace / Aircraft (AQ)       Products are designed and rated for use in aerospace, aircraft, airport, space vehicle, satellite, rocket, interplanetary explorer, and space station applications. Aircraft quality (AQ) steels and alloys are manufactured to aerospace industry AMS 2301 standard specifications of cleanliness, chemistry, strength and mill traceability as well as exacting steelmaking, rolling, and testing practices.  Mission critical and highly stressed aircraft parts are fabricated from aircraft quality (AQ) steel alloys. Aircraft quality alloys are also used in non-aerospace applications for highly stressed, mission critical components involving additional stringent inspection requirements such as macro-etch limits, magnetic particle, or other NDT tests for inclusions or other defects. Certified aircraft quality steels have paperwork indicating the alloy is what it is supposed to be and what steel mill produced the product. 
   Abrasive / Erosive Wear Protection       Materials resist damage by abrasion or erosion, and protect underlying surfaces from abrasive or erosive wear. 
   Alternative / Renewable Energy       Companies evaluated alternative or renewable energy production products such as photovoltaic (PV) cells, solar power systems, wind turbines, hydro turbines, and flywheel power systems. 
   Automotive / Vehicular       Products are designed and rated for use in automobiles, trailer trucks, trailers, railcars, off-road trucks and other vehicles. 
   Armor / Ballistic Protection       Materials are used to protect equipment, vehicles, and/or personnel against damage from blasts, explosions, bullets, and other high-speed projectiles. 
   Bearings (BQ)       Bearing quality steels and alloys are produced in accordance with ASTM A 534, A 295, and A 485. Bearing quality steels are produced under restricted melting and special teeming, heating, rolling, and conditioning methods to meet the rigid bearing quality steel requirements. Bearing quality standards typically applies to alloy steel bars and tubes intended for the manufacture of races and balls or rollers in anti-friction bearings, oil well perforating gun bullets, dies, punches, shear and cutting blades, and cam rollers. Bearing quality level steels are usually produced from standard alloy carburizing grades and high-carbon chromium grades such as 52100 alloy steel. 
   Battery / Fuel Cell       Material is suitable for use in battery or fuel cell as a collector plate, proton exchange membrane, or catalyst. 
   Biocompatible / Biomaterial       Biomaterials are specially formulated or designed to have suitable biocompatibility for biotechnology and medical applications. 
   Chemical / Materials Processing       Materials provide high temperature and/or corrosion resistance, making them suitable for chemical-processing applications.  
   Construction & Building / Architectural       Materials are designed or suitable for use in architectural, building, and construction applications.  
   Electrical / HV Parts       Materials are used to fabricate electrical parts for high voltage or power applications. 
   Electronics / RF-Microwave       Materials are suitable for electronics applications, including RF and microwave circuit, antennas, RMI and EFI shielding, and microelectronics interconnect. 
   Marine       Products are designed for use in marine applications aboard ships or in offshore settings. Uses include fishing, mooring, docks, jetties, platforms, piers, and ship construction such as hull and deck plates. 
   Mining       Alloys engineered for use in very corrosive and abrasive applications around mines and mining operations. Mining industry operation include excavation, water and slurry pumping, earth moving, and drilling under conditions where abrasive, corrosive, and erosive minerals, rocks, and soils are handled. 
   MRO (Repair / Resurfacing)       Metals and alloys are suitable for repair, hole or gap filling, patching, refinishing, resurfacing, and other maintenance and repair (MRO) applications.  
   Nuclear       Metals and alloy engineered for parts, products, capital equipment, or facilities used in the nuclear or utility industries. Nuclear grade stainless are manufactured to higher chemistry and cleanliness standards. Zirconium alloys such as Zircalloy are an excellent tube material choice for containment of uranium dioxide pellets because zirconium has a low neutron capture cross section. Inversely, hafnium has a high neutron capture cross section (neutron absorber) and is commonly used as a control rod alloy in nuclear reactors.  
   Oil and Gas       Metals and alloys are suitable for applications that can handle exposure to corrosive sour gases, erosive drilling and mining fluids, and abrasive minerals. Oil and gas industry applications entail extracting, synthesizing or processing oils, gases, or fuels such as well drilling, well maintenance, pumping, oil refining, re-refining, recovery, and recycling. Alloy products are designed and rated for use in oil wells and platforms, natural gas wells, refineries and in other energy exploration and extraction applications. 
   Pressure Vessel (PVQ)       Steels and stainless steels suitable for steam boiler, pressure vessel, and process reactor applications. Pressure vessel quality (PVQ) steels are manufactured to ASTM/ASME standards concerning chemical composition, mechanical properties, toughness, weldability, and hydrogen induced crack resistance. Pressure vessel quality steels are manufactured to higher cleanliness and quality standards compared to commercial grade steels. 
   Resistance Alloy / Heating       Metals and alloys engineered to have properties suitable for resistance heating element application. These metals and alloys are known as resistance alloys. Nichrome and Kanthal are common nickel based resistance alloys. Resistance alloys must have sufficient internal electrical resistance, high melting point, and sufficient elevated temperature strength. Resistance can vary with temperature and ideally the resistance is uniform in alloys to minimize variations with temperature or provide a linear change. In non-reducing, oxygen rich oven, furnace, and resistance heating applications, the resistance alloy must have high temperature oxidation resistance. In very high temperature vacuum and inert atmosphere furnaces, tungsten and molybdenum are commonly used.   
   Structural       Structural applications require ceramic components with a suitable strength, elastic modulus, toughness, and other mechanical properties. Metals can have much higher ductility and toughness compared to metals. 
   Wear Parts / Tooling       Wear-resistant metals are used in industrial products such as dies, molds, tooling, automotive rings, pump parts, valve seals/seats, stops, brake parts, clutch parts, and machining guides. 
   Other       Other unlisted, specialized or proprietary applications. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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Features
           
   Your choices are...         
   Cast (Continuous, Centrifugal, etc.)       Cast alloy stocks or shapes are produced in a casting process such as continuous casting or centrifugal casting. 
   Cold Finished / Rolled / Drawn       Alloy stock or shapes are produced in a process that mechanically deforms or works the material at a temperature that is below the recrystallization point of the alloy. Rolling processes squeeze the metal between two steel rolls. Drawing processes pull the metal from a die opening or gap. The elevated temperature allows a greater degree of deformation as well as annealing during the process. Hot rolled metals tend to have more scale on their surface. 
   Extruded       These alloy stocks or shapes are produced by using an extrusion process. 
   Forged       Metal stock or shapes are available as forged billets, blooms, slabs, or bar stock. The forging process presses, pounds, or squeezes metal stock under very high pressure. Material flow occurs during the forging process, closing any internal porosity and refining the microstructure. 
   Hot Rolled       Hot rolled alloy stock or shapes are produced in a process that mechanically deforms or works the material at an elevated temperature (e.g., steels in the "red" hot condition). This temperature is above the recrystallization point of the alloy. The elevated temperature allows a greater degree of deformation or a reduction of thickness. A post-annealing process is not required after hot rolling. Hot rolled metals tend to have more surface scale and require pickling and oiling. 
   Powdered Metal (Compacted)       Powered metal stock or shapes are fabricated by consolidating or compacting powdered or atomized versions of the metal or alloy. Powder processing eliminates the possibility of large inclusions and can produce a finer structure compared to conventional wrought processes. 
   Wrought       Wrought metals or alloys are worked mechanically to refine their structure, break up inclusion, close porosity, and improve homogeneity.  
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   Specialty Features       
   Your choices are...         
   Air Hardening       These materials are air-hardened grades of steels or tool steels. 
   Amorphous / Glassy Alloy       Amorphous or glassy alloys do not have a crystal structure, which results in their superior or unique magnetic properties, corrosion resistance, and mechanical and electrical properties. 
   Anti-slip / Textured       Plates, bars, angles, or other stock metal shapes have a texture or non-slip surface such as an embossed diamond pattern or an anti-slip abrasive coating. 
   Austenitic       200-series austenitic steels are stainless steels that contain chromium, nickel, and manganese. 300-series austenitic steels are stainless steels that contain chromium and nickel. The stainless steels in each austenitic group have different compositions and properties, but share many common characteristics. They can be hardened by cold working but not by heat treatment. In the annealed condition, all are essentially nonmagnetic; although some may become slightly magnetic by cold working. They have excellent corrosion resistance, unusually good formability, and increased strength due to cold working. Type 304 or 18-8 stainless steel is the most widely used alloy in the 300-series austenitic group. It has a nominal composition of 18% chromium and 8% nickel. Type 316 stainless steel has an 18-8 composition modified with molybdenum to improve pitting corrosion resistance. Austenitic grades consist of 201, 301, 301, 303, 304, 304L, 305, 309, 310, 316, 316L, 317, 317L, 321, 347, and 348 as well as specialized or proprietary austenitic stainless steels. 
   Boron Modified (B)       Steels are modified by adding boron (B). 
   Coated / Painted       Metal or alloy stock or shapes are coated with a protective or decorative layer of paint, resin, plating, thermal spray deposit, or other organic or inorganic material. 
   Corrosion Resistant       These alloys are designed or suitable for service applications that require corrosion resistance. 
   Cold Work (Die / Mold)       Steels and alloys are designed or suitable for die, mold, or other cold work service applications. Cold work steels have good compressive strength and wear resistance under room temperature conditions. 
   Duplex (e.g., 329, 2205)       The structure of duplex stainless steels consists of a combination of ferritic and austenitic phases. Duplex stainless steels have corrosion resistance properties that are equivalent to or better than austenitic stainless steels. Duplex stainless steels also have improved mechanical properties. AISI 329 and ASTM 2205 are examples of duplex grade stainless steels. 
   Vacuum Arc Melted (E, VAR, etc.)       The metal alloy has been melted or remelted using an electrical arc in a vacuum chamber or vacuum arc furnace, and then cast into a ingot, billet or other shape. The vacuum protects the metal alloy from oxidation and contamination during the high temperature melting process. Vacuum melting can also remove undesirable contaminants through evaporation such as magnesium chloride in titanium sponge. Electric arc furnaced steels or E-grade steels are very clean and have less inclusions and lower variability. Aircraft, bearing, and premium steels are usually electric arc furnaced or E-grade steels.  
   Ferritic       Ferritic stainless steels are straight-chromium 400-series metals that cannot be hardened by heat treatment, and only moderately hardened by cold marketing. They are magnetic, have good ductility, and resistant against corrosion and oxidation. Ferritic stainless steels have chromium levels that range from 10.5% to 40% (typically 12% or more) and carbon levels less than 0.20%. Types 409, 430, 434, 430, 439, 442, and 446 belong in this category. Type 430 is a general-purpose ferritic stainless steel. 
   Galvanized       Galvanized steel sheets and products are protected with an electrodeposited or dip zinc layer. The zinc and steel form a galvanic cell under wet or moist conditions. The zinc layer has a lower electro-galvanic potential compared to steel causing the zinc to be attacked and sacrificed while protecting the underlying steel. 
   Heat Resistant / Hot Work       Alloys are designed or suitable for service applications that require heat resistance. 
   Leaded / Free Machining       Alloys contain additions of lead, selenium, tellurium, bismuth, sulfur, phosphorus or other free-machining additives that help break up chips during the machining process. Free machining steels include leaded steels(SAE 12L13, 12L14), resulfurized steels (SAE 1117, 1118, 1119) and rephosphorized and resulfurized steels (SAE 1211, 1212, 1213). Tellurium (5% Te) additions to copper increase machinability 20 to 90% while maintaining high conductivity. 
   Low Carbon / Low Interstitials (L, ELI)       Metals or alloys have very low levels of carbon or interstitial elements. Low carbon levels in stainless steels (L grades) improve weldability and the corrosion resistance of the welded joints. Titanium alloys with extra low interstitial (ELI) content feature higher ductility and improved weldability. 
   Martensitic       Martensitic stainless steels are straight-chromium 400-series metals that can be hardened by heat treatment. They are magnetic, resist corrosion in mild environments, and have fairly good ductility. Some can be heated to tensile strengths that exceed 200,000 psi (1379 MPa). Type 410 is a general-purpose alloy. Martensitic stainless steel grades include 410, 440, 440C, 403, 414, 416 and 420 as well as specialty and proprietary alloys. 
   Pearlitic       Pearlitic ferrous alloy have been slowly cooled to promote the formation of pearlite.  Pearlite consist of ferrite and cementite in a lamellar or layered microstructure.  Pearlite forms when an iron-carbon composition with a eutectoid composition (0.77% carbon) is slowly cooled below 727 C from an austenite matrix. Cementite is very hard iron carbide and ferrite is a softer, lower carbon, iron phase. Pearlitic gray iron is harder to machine compared gray or ductile iron grades with high levels of ferrite or graphitic grades. 
   Ductile Iron (Nodular)       Ductile iron or nodular iron is a special grade of cast iron treated with inoculants or alloying additions while in the molten state to promote the formation in is spherulitic or sphere-shaped graphite rather than flake graphite. Ductile iron is also referred to as spherulitic graphite iron or S.G. iron. Gray iron contains large amounts of graphite in flake or platelet form resulting in lower toughness but high machinability. 
   Gray Iron       Gray iron contains large amounts of graphite in flake or platelet form resulting in lower toughness, but higher machinability compared to cast iron with a nodular or spherulitic graphite phase. The fractured surface of a broken gray iron component has a gray appearance. 
   White Iron       White cast irons have very high levels of additional alloying elements such as chromium that increase hardness, corrosion resistance, and wear properties. The alloying additions promote the formation of alloy carbides. Chromium carbides are harder and more wear resistant than iron carbides. 
   Oil Hardening       These materials are oil-hardened grades of steels or tool steels. 
   Precipitation Hardening (e.g., PH, 17-4)       Precipitation hardening alloys can be hardened by solution treating and aged to high strength. Precipitation hardening (PH) stainless steels are chromium-nickel metals, some of which contain alloying elements such as copper or aluminum. PH grades 17-7 (Type 631), 17-4 (Type 630), 13-8, 15-5, 15-7, as well as specialty and proprietary alloys. Many aluminum alloys are hardened or strengthened through a precipitation hardening process. 
   Shock / Impact Resistant       Alloys are designed or suitable for service applications that require shock or impact resistance. 
   Super Alloy       Superalloys are nickel, cobalt, or iron-based alloys with excellent elevated temperature strength, creep properties, and oxidation resistance. 
   Wear Resistant / High Speed       Alloys are designed or suitable for service applications that require wear or erosion resistance. 
   Water Hardening       These materials are water-hardened grades of steels or tool steels. 
   Other       Other unlisted proprietary, patented, or specialized finish, processing, heat treatment, or temper condition. 
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