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Metal / Alloy Types:

Help with Master Alloys and Alloying Additives specifications:

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   Alloying - Master Alloy       A master alloy has all of the major alloying constituents in concentrated form. For example, a 10% addition of a 60% aluminum - 40% vanadium composition master alloy combined with 90% pure titanium will produce Ti-6Al-4V alloy, which is the workhorse titanium alloy for aerospace applications. 
   Alloying - Elemental Addition       Elemental additions are pure metal constituents added into a melt such as manganese or chromium metal additions for steel. 
   Alloying - Microalloying       Microalloying modifiers are additions added in small amounts that have a significant impact on properties or processing. Rare earth element (RE) additions in small amounts can dramatically alter surface energy and melt penetration in a weld pool, refinement of the grain structure, and inclusion morphology. Rare earth (RE) elements have been called the ``vitamins of metals". Microalloyed and high strength low alloy steel represent 12% of the steel produced worldwide. Microalloyed steel is defined as a steel (an iron-carbon alloy) containing small amounts of vanadium, niobium, and/or titanium with any elemental addition not exceeding 0.10% where the total microalloying elements typically do not exceed 0.15%. 
   Austenitizer       An alloying addition that promotes the formation of an austenitic phase in iron, steel, nickel, or other systems. 
   Deoxidation / Killing Agent       Deoxidizing or killing agents such as aluminum, silicon, or calcium are added into a steel or iron alloy melt to absorb melt resulting in the absence of gas release during the solidification process. A killed steel melt solidifies quietly in ingot or billet molds. The killing stops any additional reaction between the carbon and oxygen, preserving the carbon content desired. Rimmed, unkilled, capped, or semi-killed steels will have greater variation in composition across the cast ingot. 
   Desulfurization / Sulfur Control       Desulfurizing agents reduce or control the morphology of sulfur in a steel or alloy. Sulfur tends to wet the grain boundaries, resulting in hot shortness or brittle condition steel or iron alloys during hot working processes. Manganese additions to steel or iron alloys form manganese sulfides, which are nodular in nature resulting in strengthening of the grain boundaries. 
   Ferritizer       An alloying addition that promotes the formation of the ferrite phase in iron, steel, or other metal systems. 
   Grain Refiner / Nucleant       Grain refiners, nucleants, or nucleating agents promote rapid crystallization and a finer crystal size by providing many points for crystals to start growing during solidification. 
   Innoculant (Nodulizer / Spheroidizer)       Inoculants, nodulizers, or spheroidizers are added to cast irons to form spherical shaped graphite nodules resulting in ductile cast iron. Without nebulization, graphite flakes form resulting in a more brittle cast iron. Small amounts of magnesium and cerium alloying additions or inoculants are used to form ductile cast iron. 
   Modifier - Corrosion / Oxidation       Alloying addition added to enhance corrosion resistance such as chromium additions to iron, nickel, copper or cobalt based alloys 
   Modifier - Castability / Fluidity       Castability and fluidity modifiers allow a molten metal to better flow into and fill a mold during casting processes. 
   Modifier - Machinability / Chip Former       Sulfur, lead, tellurium, selenium, bismuth, and phosphorous are additives used in steel, copper, or aluminum alloys to enhance chip brittleness and enhance machinability. 
   Modifier - Toughener / Ductility       Additives or modifiers that increase ductility or toughness of the alloy or metal by nodularizing brittle phases, altering the grain structure or microstructure, or other phase transformation to promote a more ductile crystal structure or condition. 
   Modifier - Stabilizer       Stabilizers or stabilizing agents promote the stability of a particular phase or reduce dissolution. For instance, niobium, titanium, and tantalum are carbide stabilizers in steel. Titanium carbides, tantalum carbides, and niobium carbides are thermodynamically vary stable and difficult to dissolve in a steel melt during welding. Without stabilizers, chromium carbides may form at the grain boundaries reducing the chromium content below 12%, which increase the chance for inter-grannular corrosion to occur. The carbon combines preferentially with the carbide stabilizers, reducing or eliminating the depletion of chromium at the grain boundaries. 
   Modifier - Strengthening / Hardening       Strengthening alloying additives increase alloy strength or hardness by various mechanism such as straining the lattice in solid solution or interstitial solution formation, promoting the formation of second phases, precipitation hardening, phase transformations, hardening reaction, and martensite formation. 
   Modifier - Weldability / Joining       Alloying additions used to enhance weldability, joining, (brazing, soldering) or joint quality by controlling stages such as wetting, penetration, solidification, liquation, and second phase formation in the heat affect zone (HAZ). 
   Specialty / Other       Other unlisted, proprietary, specialized, or patented alloying addition. 
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Metal / Alloy System
   Metal / Alloy Types:       
   Your choices are...         
   Aluminum Alloy       Aluminum and aluminum alloys are lightweight, non-ferrous metals with good corrosion resistance, ductility, and strength. Aluminum is relatively easy to fabricate by forming, machining, or welding. This metal is a good electrical and thermal conductor. Aluminum is also useful as an alloying element in steel and titanium alloys. Aluminum alloys are versatile metals with applications in almost every industrial and commercial segment. 
   Carbon / Alloy Steel       Plain carbon steels are ferrous alloys based on iron, carbon, and small levels of other alloying elements such as manganese or aluminum. Carbon steels include soft, non-hardenable low carbon or mild steels such as 1020, as well as hardenable high carbon steels such as 1095. Steel alloys are used in a wide variety of applications in almost every industrial segment. Mild steels and low carbon steels can be fabricated easily by machining, forming, casting, and welding. 
   Cast Iron       Cast iron is an iron alloy with high amounts of carbon. This category includes ductile iron, gray iron, and white cast iron grades. Differences in grades are due to variations in composition and processing. 
   Cobalt / Cobalt Alloy       Cobalt and cobalt alloys are non-ferrous magnetic alloys with high strength and toughness, excellent corrosion and oxidation resistance, and high temperature strength. Cobalt can also be magnetized. Cobalt's properties result in the use of cobalt alloys in jet engine super-alloy components, prosthetic devices, magnets, and cutting tool binders. Cobalt is a useful alloying element in tool, maraging, and other alloy steels. 
   Copper, Brass or Bronze Alloy       Copper and copper alloys are non-ferrous metals with excellent electrical and thermal conductivity as well as good corrosion resistance, ductility, and strength. Copper alloys are relatively easy to fabricate by forming, casting, or machining. Pure copper is more difficult to weld, cast, or machine. Brass, tin bronze, leaded brass, beryllium copper, and zirconium copper are examples of copper alloys. Copper is useful as an alloying element in aluminum alloys and powder metal based iron alloys.  Copper is a versatile metal with applications in many industrial and commercial segments. Copper's high electrical conductivity (100% IACS) makes it extremely useful in electrical and electronic applications. 
   Low Melting (Tin, Lead, Indium, etc.)       Lead, tin, and white metals are low melting non-ferrous metals and alloys. Lead and white metal alloys are used as solders, battery electrodes, bearing liners, decorative products, and coatings. They are also used in other specialized applications. Indium, tin, lead, and antimony are used to manufacture semiconductors. 
   Magnesium Alloy       Magnesium and magnesium alloys are non-ferrous metals with low density (relatively high strength to weight ratio), good ductility, moderate strength, and good corrosion resistance. Magnesium and magnesium alloys are used in a variety of industries as well as in aircraft, marine, and power tool applications. 
   Molybdenum / Molybdenum Alloy       Molybdenum is a refractory metal with a very high melting point and a relatively high density. Molybdenum and molybdenum alloys are used to fabricate PVD evaporation crucibles, electrodes, electrical contacts, and other high temperature components.  
   Nickel Alloy       Nickel and nickel alloys are non-ferrous metals with high strength and toughness, excellent corrosion resistance, and superior elevated temperature properties. Nickel can also be magnetized. Nickel's properties result in the use of nickel alloys in jet engine super-alloy components, corrosion resistant chemical process equipment (valves, piping, and pumps), magnets and electrical resistance alloys, and heating elements. Nickel is also a useful alloying element in stainless, tool, maraging, and other alloy steels. 
   Noble / Precious Metal       Noble and precious metal alloys such as silver, gold, platinum, and palladium alloys are extremely resistant to corrosion and oxidation. Noble and precious metal alloys are used in electrical contacts, electronic connectors, chemical process components, catalysts, jewelry, and other specialized applications. 
   Rare Earth Alloy       Metals or alloys are based on elements from the rare earth elements group. 
   Refractory / Reactive Alloy       Refractory and reactive metals include boron (B), tungsten (W), tantalum (Ta), molybdenum (Mo), niobium (Nb) / columbium (Cb), zirconium (Zr), hafnium (Hf), thorium (Th), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), rhenium ( ), and titanium (Ti). Refractory metals and alloys are metals with melting points above ~1750 C (~ 32000 F). Refractory metals are used in high temperature, structural, electrical, and other specialty applications. Reactive metals combine readily with oxygen at elevated temperatures to form very stable oxides. Titanium, zirconium, and beryllium are considered reactive metals. Finely divided reactive metals can react explosively with oxygen and are often added to rocket fuels or combustible mixtures. A highly stable oxide film formed on the alloy surface provides protection against further oxidization or corrosion at low to moderate temperatures.  Reactive metals can become embrittled if there is too much interstitial absorption into the lattice of oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. 
   Stainless Steel       Stainless steels are highly corrosion resistant, ferrous alloys that contain chromium and/or nickel additions. There are three basic types of products: austenitic stainless steels, ferritic and martensitic stainless steels, and specialty stainless steels and iron superalloys. Austenitic stainless steels (AISI 300 / 200 Series) are highly corrosion resistant, ferrous alloys that contain chromium and nickel or manganese additions. Generally, austenitic stainless steels are more corrosion resistant than ferritic or martensitic stainless steels. Annealed austenitic stainless steels are non-magnetic. Cold working is used to harden austenitic stainless steels because these alloys do not respond to conventional quench and temper hardening processes. Ferritic and martensitic stainless steels are highly corrosion resistant, ferrous alloys that contain chromium and/or carbon additions. Ferritic stainless steels are soft, easy to form metal alloys. Cold working is used to harden ferritic stainless steels because these alloys do not respond to conventional quench and temper hardening processes. Ferritic stainless steels are formed to fabricate mufflers and other sheet metal components that require good corrosion resistance. Martensitic stainless steels can be hardened by a conventional quench and temper operation. Martensitic stainless steels are used for knife blades, tooling, or other applications that require good corrosion resistance combined with higher hardness and wear resistance. Specialty stainless steels and iron superalloys are highly corrosion resistant, ferrous alloys containing chromium, nickel, or other alloying additions to provide high strength or heat resistance. Duplex and precipitation hardening stainless steels belong in this category. 
   Titanium / Titanium Alloy       Titanium and titanium alloys are non-ferrous metals with excellent corrosion resistance, good fatigue properties, and a high strength-to-weight ratio. Titanium's properties result in the use of titanium and titanium alloys in aircraft or airframe parts, jet engine super-alloy components, corrosion resistant chemical process equipment (valves, piping, and pumps), prostheses or medical devices, and marine equipment. 
   Tool Steel       Tool steels are wear resistant, ferrous alloys based on iron and carbon with high levels of alloying (hardenability and property modifying) elements such as chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, and vanadium. Specific tool steel grades are available for die or cold work, hot work, high speed, and shock resistance applications. Tool steel alloys are used in a wide variety of applications that require wear resistance. They are difficult to fabricate in their hardened form and are usually EDM-machined or grounded to achieve the tolerances required for tooling applications. EDM is an acronym for electrical discharge machining; this is a process that can cut small or odd-shaped angles, intricate contours, and cavities in extremely hard steels and exotic metals. 
   Tungsten / Tungsten Alloy       Tungsten is a refractory metal with a very high melting point and high density. Tungsten and tungsten alloys are used to fabricate light bulb filaments, PVD evaporation crucibles, EDM electrodes, electrical contacts, and in other high temperature components.  The high density of tungsten alloys are put to use in penetrators and balancing weights. 
   Zinc Alloy       Zinc and zinc alloys are moderately low melting, non-ferrous alloys widely used in the production of die cast components. 
   Specialty / Other Alloy       Other miscellaneous metal or alloy system. 
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