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Services
   Service      In stud arc welding, the conventional welding stick or wire is replaced with a threaded fastener stud.  The stud fits into the end of specialized stud welding gun.  An arc is struck between the fastener stud and the work piece that fuses the stud to the work piece’s surface.  Drawn arc, capacitive discharge, internal resistance or other processes are used to generate an arc or fuse metal.  Similar processes can be applied to weld a thread nut to a work piece.
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   Brazing       Brazing is a metal joining process that uses a molten braze alloy where wetting and metallurgical bonding occurs between the filler and surfaces with little or no fusion of the substrates. Temperatures are typically high enough for diffusion processes to occur, which encourages metallurgical bonding.  Brazes have a higher melting point (>800° F) than solders and cause little or no metal vaporization, gain growth, stress corrosion, or distortion. There are six basic types of brazing filler alloys: aluminum alloy brazes, copper alloy brazes, gold alloy brazes, nickel alloy brazes, palladium alloy brazes, and silver alloy brazes. 
   Soldering       Solders or soldering filler alloys are metal alloys with low melting points that are used to join metals together. They are mixed with flux, a reducing agent that removes impurities from the points of contact in order to improve electrical conductivity. Soldering applies heat to metal parts and causes the resulting joint to draw in the softened solder through surface wetting or capillary action. After the metal cools, the resulting joint is not as strong as the base material, but provides adequate strength, electrical conductivity, and water resistance for specific applications. Many soldering techniques use a hot-air soldering tool, an electric soldering iron or gun, an infrared (IR) lamp, or a brazing torch. Metal parts can also be soldered together by passing them over a bulk container of melted solder. Wave soldering and reflow soldering are methods for attaching components to printed circuit boards (PCBs).<BR> <BR> Solders are based on metal alloys such as cadmium-zinc (Cd-Zn), lead-zinc (Pb-Zn), indium (In), tin-lead (Sn-Pb), tin-silver (Sn-Ag), tin-antimony (Sn-Sb), and zinc-aluminum (Zn-Al). 
   Braze-Welding       Braze-welding or bronze welding is similar to brazing, with the exception that capillary action is not relied on so larger gaps and multiple passes can be applied. The base metal is not fused, but subsequent passes of braze alloy are fused together. 
   Specialty / Other       Other unlisted, patented, or proprietary soldering or brazing processes. 
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   Additional Services       
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   Assembly       Supplier has the capability to handle and manufacture assemblies from multiple parts. 
   CAD / CAM Support       Computer aided design or drafting (CAD) is used to design products quickly and accurately. Computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is used to fabricate products directly from CAD outputs. 
   Design Assistance       Suppliers help with concepts, manufacturing costs, manufacturing techniques, and material considerations. Suppliers may also be able to assist in upgrading or redesigning and re-evaluating or modernizing existing products to increase performance and/or reduce manufacturing costs. Some suppliers offer material sourcing and CAD modeling as well. 
   Field Joining / Repair       Suppliers have equipment and personnel to perform services in the field or at the job site. 
   Fixture Design / Fabrication       Supplier has in-house capability to design and/or fabricate fixtures, work holders, or trays for brazing or soldering processes. 
   High Volume Production       Suppliers can perform high-volume production runs, typically of over one week.  
   Low to Mid Volume Production       Suppliers can perform low-volume to mid-volume production runs. 
   Machining       Suppliers can produce machined components such as threaded parts or higher tolerance features for use within the welded fabrication.  
   Testing and Inspection       Suppliers provide a number of testing and inspection services, including ultrasonic inspection, magnetic particle inspection, material hardness and/or material properties testing. 
   Other       Other unlisted services. 
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Capabilities
   Process Capability       
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   Active Brazing / Soldering       Supplier has the capability to utilize active solder or braze alloys. Active elements or constituent such as titanium, cerium, or gallium will allow the braze or solder to wet or penetrant ceramics or oxide films. Without active filler alloy, a ceramic substrate would have to be pre-metallized to allow bonding to occur. The active element will require a vacuum or protective atmosphere or the active elements will oxidize and become ineffective. 
   Electron Beam       The electron beam process fuses the braze or solder with an electron beam. Electron beams provide an extremely narrow, concentrated energy source that melts a narrow region, resulting in a minimal heat affected zone. Electron beam processing requires a vacuum atmosphere to prevent absorption of the electrons by air. 
   Furnace       Furnace or atmosphere brazing consists of fixturing the part assemblies and pre-cut filler alloys in high-temperature resistant trays, and then feeding the trays or assemblies into the furnace to melt the braze or solder alloy. 
   Gas / Oxyfuel Torch       Gas torch brazing or soldering uses a combustible fuel gas such as propane and air or oxygen to heat the workpiece and melt the braze filler alloy. The molten braze alloy wets and flows across the heated work surface. Temperatures are normally high and can form a metallurgical bond; however, fusion of the workpiece does not normally occur.  
   Hot Air / Inert Gas       Supplier has the capability to use preform hot air or hot inert gas brazing or soldering. 
   Hot Dip       Hot dip brazing or soldering immerses workpieces in a molten bath of filler alloy. The bath heats the work surfaces. The molten filler alloy wets and flows across the heated work surface, or is pulled into the joint by capillary action. Excess filler alloy runs off as the part is pulled from the molten bath. 
   Hot Rod / Iron       A heated rod or iron is used to heat the work surfaces and melt the solder or braze filler alloy. The molten filler alloy wets and flows across the heated work surface. 
   Induction / RF       Induction soldering or brazing uses an induction heating source to heat the workpiece and melt the solder or braze filler alloy. A high frequency power supply and induction coil induces current flow with the workpiece and causes internal resistance heating. The molten solder or braze alloy wets and flows across the heated work surface. Temperatures are normally high and can form a metallurgical bond; however, fusion of the workpiece does not normally occur. 
   Infrared       Infrared soldering or brazing uses an infrared or furnace heat source to heat the workpiece and melt the braze or solder filler alloy, which wets and flows across the heated work surface. Furnace brazing or soldering is sometimes called reflow brazing or soldering because the filler alloy is pre-applied to a part and then reflowed later during the assembly process. 
   Laser       Laser brazing or soldering uses a laser to heat the workpiece and melt the solder or braze filler alloy, which wets and flows across the heated work surface. 
   Reflow Soldering       Reflow soldering is the process of remelting electrodeposition, solder shims, or plated solder deposit, to cause them to flow.  Reflow soldering results in a bright surface where any non-wetting defects can be easily detected. The main function of reflow soldering is for quality control. Reflow soldering equipment may consist of or include a reflow soldering oven. 
   Resistance / Conventional       Resistance brazing and soldering uses resistance heating to heat the workpiece and melt the braze filler alloy. Contact tips or horns clamp onto the part and pass current through a point adjacent to braze joint, causing internal and contact resistance heating. The molten braze alloy wets and flows across the heated work surface. Temperatures are normally high and can form a metallurgical bond; however, fusion of the workpiece does not normally occur. 
   Ultrasonic / Linear Friction       Ultrasonic or linear friction welding heats workpieces with ultrasonic vibration or reciprocating linear motion between the surfaces. The workpieces are clamped under moderately high forces between a welding tip and anvil. An ultrasonic transducer is coupled to the welding tip. Ultrasonic welding is considered a solid-state welding process because the work surface is not normally fused.  The process can be used to join dissimilar metals and plastics. 
   Wave Soldering       Wave soldering is a popular mass soldering method for electronic boards. Wave soldering or flow soldering uses a molten solder bath with a traveling wave. Printed circuit boards (PCB) are positioned so that the terminations just touch the solder wave, preventing the deposition of excess solder on the PCB. Wave soldering machines consist of a fluxing unit, a pre-heater, and a solder wave. The pre-heater heats the board and component termination prior to soldering, activating the flux and removing any solvent or water from the PCB. The board is passed over a wave of solder, which laps up against the bottom of the board to wet and solder the metal surfaces to be joined. 
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   Specialty / Additional Capabilities       
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   Fluxless       Supplier has the capability to use fluxless brazing or soldering alloys. 
   Hermetic Sealing       Supplier has the capability to create hermetic seals using brazing or soldering techniques. 
   Pre-metallizing       Pre-metallization is the coating or deposition of a metal layer onto ceramics, glasses, or other non-wettable materials to allow brazes or solders to wet out and bond to the substrates. 
   Pressure Brazing / Soldering       Supplier has the capability to braze or solder with applied pressure. The applied pressure can drive the braze or solder into joints that may not have the intrinsic capillary pressure to pull in the liquid braze or solder alloy. 
   Protective Atmosphere       Supplier has the capability to use reducing or inert gases during soldering or brazing processes. Typically protective atmospheres are used during furnace brazing or soldering depending on the alloys used. 
   Rework (Desoldering / Debrazing)       Rework or removal soldering, desoldering, or debrazing are the debonding of two or more metallic surfaces previously jointed together with solder or braze, which is melted to allow separation of the parts and then wicked away or re-cooled as they bond. The solder is usually vacuumed or wicked away after remelting. Rework or removal soldering processes include the remelting of soldering for repositioning of components or extraction of defective devices. 
   Vacuum       Supplier has the capability to braze in a vacuum atmosphere. Vacuum atmospheres provide the best protection for some brazing or soldering applications. 
   Other Process       Other unlisted brazing or soldering processes. 
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Materials
   Materials       
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   Aluminum       Aluminum is a silvery-white, ductile metallic element with good conductive and thermal properties. It is used to form many hard, light, corrosion-resistant alloys. 
   Carbide / Hardmetal       Carbides and carbide materials include silicon carbide, tungsten carbide, and titanium carbide as well as other compounds of a metal (Ti, W, Cr, Zr, etc.) or metalloid (B, Si) and carbon. Carbides have excellent wear resistance and high hot-hardness. Cemented carbide or hardmetals are cermets consisting of carbide particles bonded together in a cobalt, nickel, or alloy matrix. 
   Carbon (Graphite, Diamond, etc.)       Carbon occurs in a variety of forms such as vitreous carbon, pyrolytic graphite, hexagonal graphite, and polycrystalline diamond (PCD). Carbon and graphite materials have high refractoriness, while diamond has the highest hardness of all known materials. 
   Cast Iron       Cast iron is a hard, brittle, nonmalleable iron-carbon alloy that is cast into shape. 
   Ceramics / Ceramic-to-Metal       Industrial ceramic materials are non-metallic, inorganic compounds that include oxides, carbides, or nitrides. They have high melting points, low wear resistance, and a wide range of electrical properties. Ceramics may require pre-metallization or active filler alloys to allow solder or braze to wet surfaces and form good bonds. 
   Composite       Composite materials typically consist of a matrix and a dispersed, fibrous or continuous second phase. The second phase may reinforce (strengthen or stiffen), alter electrical or magnetic properties or enhance wear or erosion resistance. 
   Copper / Copper Alloy       Copper is a ductile, malleable, reddish metallic element that is one of the best conductors of heat and electricity. Brass and bronze are copper alloys. Brass indicates a copper alloy with zinc as the main alloying agent. Bronze is the general term for copper alloys. A variety of bronzes beyond the traditional tin bronze are available for modern applications such as silicon bronze, aluminum bronze, and manganese bronze. Brass comes with good strength, excellent high temperature ductility and reasonable cold ductility, good conductivity, excellent corrosion resistance, good bearing properties, and low magnetic permeability. 
   Glass / Glass-to-Metal       Glass materials have a random, liquid-like (non-crystalline) molecular structure. Silicate based glasses are the most common type. They are heated to a temperature sufficient to produce a completely fused melt. Glass may require pre-metallization or active filler alloys to allow braze or solder alloys to wet surfaces and form good bonds. 
   Nickel / Nickel Alloy       Will vary per application, as nickel is a constituent of many alloys. 
   Ornamental Iron       Iron is formed in shapes to be used for ornamental purposes such as fencing or decorative products. 
   Precious Metal (Gold, Silver)       Precious metals and alloys are rare metallic elements and include silver, gold, platinum, palladium, iridium, osmium, rhodium, and ruthenium. They are durable, extremely resistant to corrosion and oxidation, and of high economic value. Precious metals and alloys have higher melting points than other metals. Metallic elements such as silver and gold are internationally recognized forms of currency under ISO 4217 from the International Standards Organization (ISO). Precious metal alloys are used in decorative, dental, and industrial applications 
   Refractory Metal       Refractory metals such as tungsten, molybdenum, and tantalum. 
   Steel - Stainless       Stainless steel is a family of corrosion-resistant steels that contain a minimum of 10% chromium. Nickel, molybdenum, titanium, niobium, and other elements may also be present. 
   Steel - Carbon / Alloy       Structural steels are large, part-strength steels used to build structural components. 
   Steel - Tool       Tool steel is a group of high-carbon steels that provide combinations of high hardness, toughness, or resistance at elevated temperatures. 
   Titanium Alloy       Titanium is a hard, lustrous, silvery, element that is relatively abundant in the Earth's crust.  It is known for its lightness, strength, and corrosion resistance. For this reason, it is used widely in the aerospace industry and the medical fields (e.g., replacement joints).  When alloyed with other metals, especially steel, it adds strength and oxidation resistance. 
   Specialty / Other       Other unlisted materials. 
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   Dissimilar Materials?       Supplier has expertise or capability in brazing or soldering dissimilar materials. 
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Industry Served
   Industry Served       
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   Aerospace / Avionics       Supplier has expertise in soldering or brazing aerospace and avionics products such as ducts, tubing or tubing assemblies. Aerospace components and assemblies often consist of aluminum, magnesium, nickel or titanium alloys, which require special handling and qualifications to braze or solder. Typically, supplier processing aerospace components are NADCAP certified. 
   Automotive / Radiators       Supplier has expertise in soldering or brazing automotive parts or assemblies such as radiators, fuel assemblies, manifolds, brake assemblies, seatbelt brackets, header assemblies, and heater cores. 
   Electrical Parts / Assemblies (Contacts, Connectors, etc.)       Supplier has expertise in soldering or brazing electrical parts or assemblies such as contacts, contact arm assemblies, brushes, brush assemblies, motors, generators, electric power connectors, grounding straps or braids, switches, busbars, or busways. 
   Electronic / IC Packages       Semiconductor, microelectronic, and IC package fabrication includes soldering or brazing at the wafer, die, or packaged IC level. Semiconductor and IC package services may include wafer sort and packaging services, in addition to component processing. In the packaging process, fabricated wafers are cut into dies and then "packaged" in a lead frame or other system, which protects the chip and allows interconnection to the electronic circuit on the PCB, module, or product. Wafer sort is wafer-level testing where the individual dies are tested for defects and then marked before the packaging process. Defective dies are rejected, which avoids unnecessary packaging costs. After the packaging and interconnect is complete, the packaged device may be put through additional functional or burn-in testing; this is often done using automated test equipment (ATE). 
   Heat Sinks / Thermal Management       Supplier has expertise in soldering or brazing heat sinks and other thermal management products. Heat sinks and thermal management components and assemblies often consist of copper, aluminum, or other materials with high thermal conductivity, which require special handling and qualifications to braze or solder. 
   Honeycomb Structures       Supplier has expertise in soldering or brazing honeycomb core sheets to metal skins to form composite or assemblies. 
   HVAC / Plumbing       Supplier has expertise in brazing or soldering plumbing components and lighting fixtures as well as to heating, cooling, and ventilation (HVAC) products or equipment. 
   Medical Devices / Health Care       Supplier has expertise in brazing or soldering medical devices and/or other health care products or equipment. 
   Process Equipment (Heat Exchangers, Tanks, etc.)       Supplier has expertise in soldering or brazing process equipment products such as heat exchangers, tanks, vessels, piping or pipe assemblies, heaters, and tubing or tubing assemblies. Process equipment components and assemblies often consist of stainless steel, nickel or titanium alloys, which require special handling and qualifications to braze or solder. 
   Surface Mount Devices / Electronics       Supplier has soldering equipment and process capability suitable for attaching surface mount devices to printed circuit boards or other electronic devices. 
   Tool & Die       Supplier has expertise in soldering or brazing tool and die products such as joining cemented carbide pads to arms, boring bars, repairing tooling, or repairing molds. 
   Tubing Assembly / System       Suppliers are experienced in the design, construction, and testing of tubing or piping assemblies or systems. 
   Specialty / Other       Supplier has expertise in other, unlisted or proprietary industry application(s). 
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Location
   Location       
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   North America       Companies are located in the United States, Canada or Mexico. 
   United States Only       Companies are located in the United States. 
   Northeast US Only       Companies are located in the Northeast United States, namely Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Vermont. 
   Southern US Only       Companies are located in the Southern United States, namely Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington D.C., and West Virginia. 
   Southwest US Only       Companies are located in the Southwest United States, namely Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico and Utah. 
   Northwest US Only       Companies are located in the Northwest United States, namely Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming. 
   Midwest US Only       Companies are located in the Midwest United States, namely Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota and Wisconsin. 
   Canada Only       Companies are located in Canada. 
   South / Central America Only       Companies have facilities in South American countries such as Argentina, Brazil, or Chile; or in Central American countries such as Costa Rica, Honduras, Panama, etc. 
   Europe Only       Companies are located in Europe, namely Germany, Ireland, Italy, United Kingdom, etc. 
   South Asia Only       Companies are located in South Asia, namely India, Pakistan, Nepal, etc. 
   Near East Only       Companies are located in the Near East, namely Egypt, Israel, Saudi Arabia, etc. 
   East Asia / Pacific Only       Companies are located in East Asia, namely China, Japan, Taiwan, etc. 
   Other       Other unlisted countries or regions. 
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