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Fabrication Process:

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Help with Ceramic Fabrication Services specifications:

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   Fabrication Process:       
   Your choices are...         
   Casting       Suppliers fabricate ceramic or refractory shapes using a fusion, slip, thixotropic, freeze or castable cement process. 
   CIP       Suppliers use cold isostatic pressing (CIP) of ceramic powders in a flexible rubber mold under high pressure (up to 60,000 psi) to form a green part. The parts are subsequently outgassed and fired or sintered.  
   Extrusion       Suppliers extrude a plastic ceramic or refractory mixture to form stock with a specific cross-sectional profile. 
   Grinding       Suppliers have grinding capabilities to provide very smooth and precise material finishes. Grinding can be used to finish high-hardness wear surfaces. 
   Gunning / Spraying       Gunnable or sprayable cements are sprayed or gunned into place using specialized gun or spray nozzles. 
   HIP       Suppliers use hot isostatic pressing (HIP) of presintered parts or of ceramic powders in a welded metal mold under high pressure (up to 60,000 psi) to form a high density part or preform. Parts can reach or closely approach theoretical density using a HIPing process 
   Injection Molding       Ceramic powders are dispersed in a plastic, wax or other binder material that is melted and injected into a die cavity with the required shape.  The wax or bonder is subsequently burned off and the ceramic part is fired or sintered to consolidate the particles. 
   Machining       Machining can include the capability of very precise machining operations such as turning, milling, boring, etc. 
   Pressing - Dry Mechanical       Suppliers press dry ceramic powders, usually with a wax binder/lubricant, in a die and punch set using a uniaxial, mechanical press. The die set is configured with the shape required, including shrinkage factors. 
   Pressing - Ramming / Wet       Suppliers press a wet ceramic powder or refractory ramming mixture in a die set or form using a mechanical press. The die set or form is configured with the shape required, including shrinkage factors. Refractory cements have enough plasticity to allow the mix to be rammed or formed into place in a furnace or in a form. The ramming material has a putty or caulk-like consistency. 
   Roll Compacting       Roll compacting is the processing of compacting a powder between two steel rolls to form a continuous sheet of ceramic material. 
   Sintering / Firing       Sintering or firing is a thermal consolidation process that utilizes diffusion to bond together the ceramic particles and develop strength in a part. 
   Toll Processing - Powders       Toll or powder processing services encompass the milling, treating, blending or conditioning of ceramic powders or blends to provide a raw material suitable for manufacturing components. 
   Specialty / Other       Other specialized, unlisted, or proprietary forming or installation method. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Application / Industries Served       
   Your choices are...         
   Chemical Processing       Ceramics and refractory materials and components are suitable for chemical processing applications due to high temperature and/or corrosion resistance. Ceramics or refractories have resistance to molten glass, ceramics, metals, plastics or other materials during milling, firing, calcination, fusion or other processes. 
   Electrical / HV       Ceramics are used to fabricate electrical parts for high voltage or power applications such as insulators, igniters, or heating elements. 
   Electronics / RF-Microwave       Ferrites, garnets, alumina/sapphire and silicates have sufficient dielectric properties for use in electronic, RF, and microwave devices such as antenna radomes, patch antenna substrates, thin / thick film substrates, and resonators. 
   Foundry / Metal Processing       Ceramic and refractory crucibles, tubes, stoppers, liners, spouts, permanent molds, thermocouple protection tubes, combustion gas heater tubes, submersible heater tubes, die casting stalks / sleeves and other furnace components are used in foundries for melting and casting aluminum, steel, copper alloys or other metals. 
   Optical Components       Ceramic materials are specialized for use in fabricating or processing optical components such as lenses, windows, prisms, optical fiber, and lasing material components. Single crystal ceramics, transparent ceramics, sapphire and quartz are example of materials with optical applications. 
   Refractory / Heat Resistant       Suppliers can form a refractory part to a designer's print or specifications using a casting, extrusion, isostatic pressing or other forming process, as well as additional machining and finishing steps as required. 
   Structural Components       Structural applications require ceramic components with suitable strength, modulus or other mechanical properties. Ceramics can have much higher compressive strengths and elastic moduli compared to metals. 
   Wear Parts / Tooling       Ceramics' excellent wear resistance properties find application in a variety of industrial products such as automotive rings, pump parts, valve seals / seats, faucet discs, papermaking machine dewatering strips, aluminum can dies, wire drawing dies and textile guides. 
   Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary applications. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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Materials
   Materials       
   Your choices are...         
   Alumina (Al2O3)       Alumina or aluminum oxide (Al2O3) is a compound of aluminum metal and oxygen usually used in the alpha alumina structural form.  In its pure form alumina is a white, high hardness ceramic. Fully dense alumina can be translucent.  Alumina has found wide application due to its versatility and a relatively low raw material cost. Depending on the purity and density, alumina is used for refractory tubes, industrial crucibles, analytical labware, dielectric substrates, wear components, refractory cements and abrasives.  Alumina's main drawback is its relatively poor thermal shock resistance due its higher coefficients of thermal expansion and lower thermal conductivity compared to other pure ceramic materials such as SiC.  
   Carbon / Graphite       Carbon (C) is a non-metallic element with an extremely high sublimation temperature and a wide variety of crystalline structures.  Some of carbon's polymorphic forms are amorphous or vitreous carbon, pyrolytic graphite, hexagonal or flake graphite, diamond or diamond-like carbon, fullerenes and nanotube structures.  Carbon without a protective coating must be used in reducing or vacuum atmospheres to prevent oxidation at elevated temperatures.  Depending on the purity, density and crystal structure carbon is used for refractory linings, industrial crucibles, arc furnace electrodes, analytical labware, composites, refractory cements and superabrasives.  
   Glass Ceramic       Glass ceramics are ceramics that can be fused and then molded, formed, ground or machined using conventional glass fabrication techniques.  After part fabrication, the glass ceramic's structure is transformed from an amorphous glassy state to crystalline ceramic state. MACOR®  is widely applied glass ceramic with a fluorine rich glass composition approaching trisilicic fluorphlogopite mica (KMg3AlSi3O10F2). MACOR® is a trademarked proprietary material of Corning Corporation.  Ceran®, Ceramat®, Robax® and Zerodur® are widely applied proprietary glass ceramics from Schott Glass Corporation. 
   Metal Boride (TiB2, ZrB2)       Boride ceramics are compounds of a metal and boron such as zirconium boride (ZrB2) or titanium boride (TiB2).  Titanium borides show an increase in ductility with an increase in temperature. 
   Metal Carbide / Hard Metal (WC, TiC)       Carbides are compounds of a metal or metalloid (B, Si) and carbon. Metal carbides are also known as hard metals such as tungsten carbide (WC), titanium carbide (TiC) or tantalum carbide (TaC).   Metal carbides have high hardness and high hot hardness, which makes them useful for cutting tools, forming, dies & tool and other wear applications. Metal carbides often used a cobalt, nickel or intermetallic metal bond between grains (cemented carbides) which results in increases toughness compared a pure carbide or ceramic.   
   Mullite (Al2O3-Si02)       Mullite (3Al2O3-2Si02 or Al6Si2O13) is a compound of aluminum, silicon and oxygen. Mullite can also be viewed as a phase in the alumina-silica binary system.  Mullite is a synthetic, fused or calcined crystalline aluminum silicate produced in electric arc furnaces from alumina and silica.  Mullite usually has an off-white or tan color. Depending on the purity and density, mullite can have superior dielectric and thermal shock properties and resistance to slag & silicate refractory bonds.  Mullite is used for refractory tubes, industrial crucibles, analytical labware, dielectric substrates, wear components and in refractory cements.  Refractory grade mullite or alumina-mullite mixtures are often derived by calcining Kyanite minerals.  
   Nitride (AlN, BN)       Nitride ceramics are compounds of a metal or metalloid (Si, B) and nitrogen such as titanium nitride (TiN), silicon nitride (Si3N4), boron nitride (BN) or aluminum nitride (AlN).  Nitrides are relatively inert and have good thermal conductivity combined with high electrical insulation capability making these materials useful as substrates, insulators and barrier layers in microelectronics applications. 
   Porcelain       Porcelain materials are used for both useful industrial and ornamental applications. Traditional porcelain is made from a mixture of feldspar, clay (koalin) and flint.  Steatite or cordierite porcelains are commonly used in electrical insulator applications. Many porcelain compositions are based on the K20-Al203-SiO2 or Mg0-Al203-SiO2 ternary systems.  The term "Porcelain' comes from the Italian "porcell" which means "little pig", a name given to a smooth, white cowrie shell. 
   Sapphire       Sapphire is a high purity and density, single crystalline form of aluminum oxide, which may contain chromia, titania, yttria or other dopants.  Sapphire is usually transparent or translucent.  Sapphire ceramics are used in lasers, substrates, jewel bearings, watch crystals or other specialized optical, wear and electronic applications. Ruby, corundum, topaz are other names for natural or synthetic sapphire.  Ruby is chromium doped sapphire used in optical filters and laser rods.   
   SiAlON (Al2O3-Si3N4)       SiAlON (Al2O3-Si3N4) is an alloy of silicon nitride and aluminum oxide. SiAlON has the combined properties of silicon nitride (high strength, hardness, fracture toughness and low thermal expansion) and aluminum oxide (corrosion resistance, chemically inert, high temperature capabilities and oxidation resistance. SiAlON is superior refractory material for components exposed to high temperatures, mechanical abuse, corrosion, wear or applications requiring electrical resistance. 
   Silicate / Fused Silica       Fused silica is a compound of silicon and oxygen. For dielectric applications, silicates are modified with magnesium and/or aluminum to provide sufficient dielectric properties. Cordierite and steatite are silicate commonly used in dielectric applications.  High purity amorphous fused silica is a high performance ceramic with very low expansion, remarkable thermal shock resistance, low thermal conductivity, excellent electrical insulation up to 1000°C and excellent resistance to corrosion from molten metal and glass. 
   Silicide (MoSi2)       Silicide ceramics are compounds of a metal and silicon such as molybdenum disilicide (MoSi2). Molybdenum disilicide is commonly used as a resistant heating element in high temperature furnaces. 
   Silicon Carbide (SiC)       Silicon carbide (SiC) is a compound of silicon metalloid and oxygen usually used in the alpha silicon carbide structural form.  SiC is a black, high hardness ceramic that usually is harder than alumina.  Depending on the Impurity additions, silicon carbide is green or black in color. Fully dense silicon carbide can be transparent (Moissanite).  Silicon carbide has found wide application due to its versatility and a relatively low raw material cost. Depending on the purity and density SiC is used for refractory tubes, industrial crucibles, wafer semi-insulating substrates, wear components, refractory cements and abrasives.  Alumina's main drawback is its relatively poor thermal shock resistance compared to materials with lower coefficients of thermal expansion.  SiC forms a protective SiO2 skin that to prevents further oxidation at very high temperatures in non-reducing atmospheres.  Silicon carbide has relatively high thermal shock resistance compared to other ceramic materials due its low coefficient of thermal expansion combined with high thermal conductivity.   
   Silicon Nitride (Si3N4)       Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is a compound of silicon and nitrogen.  Silicon nitride has superior mechanical properties and forms a protective SiO2 skin at high temperatures.   Silicon nitride is difficult to sinter by conventional means because the material dissociates above 1800oC. 
   Zirconia (ZrO2)       Zirconia or zirconium oxide (ZrO2) is an extremely refractory compound of zirconium and oxygen. Zirconia may have additions of calcia, magnesia or baria to stabilize the structure into a cubic structure and/or improve dielectric characteristics. Zirconia stabilized in the cubic crystal structure avoids cracking and mechanical weakening during heating and cooling.  Certain zirconia materials have the ability to transformation toughen (tetragonal to monoclinic phase change) under applied stress and it is frequently used in wear applications requiring improved fracture toughness and stiffness over alumina.  Zirconia ceramics possess excellent chemical inertness and corrosion resistance at temperatures well above the melting point of alumina.   Zirconia is more costly than alumina, so it is only where alumina will fail. Zirconia has low thermal conductivity and it is an electrical conductor above 800°C. Zirconia is used to fabricate oxygen sensors or fuel cell membranes because zirconia possesses the unique ability to allow oxygen ions to move freely through the crystal structure above 600°C. Zirconia products should not be used in contact with alumina above 1600°C.  Depending on the purity and density zirconia is used for refractory tubes, industrial crucibles, analytical labware, sensors, wear components, refractory cements, thermocouple protection tubes, furnace muffles, liners and high temperature heating element supports. 
   Specialty / Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary material. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Composite?       Composite materials consist of a matrix material reinforced with a stronger or higher modulus second phase.  The second phase may be in the form of particulates, chopped fibers or continuous fibers.  The matrix may consist of a ceramic (CRC, ceramic matrix composite), a metal (MMC or metal matrix composite) or a polymer material.  Ceramic or glass fibers are commonly utilized as the reinforcement due to their high strength and/or modulus. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
   Fibrous Ceramic?       Fibrous refractories or thermal insulation products consist of ceramic fibers in bulk, fiberboard, paper or rope forms.  Fibrous refractory products have greater degree of flexibility and can be formed into configurations required for insulating furnaces, steam piping or other process heating systems. The low density of the refractory fibers results in increased insulative properties. Refractories are hard, heat resistant materials and products such as alumina cement, fire clay, bricks, precast shapes, cement or monolithics and ceramic kiln furniture.  Ceramics and refractories have high melting points are suitable for applications requiring wear resistance, high temperature strength, electrical or thermal insulation or other specialized characteristics. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
   Porous Ceramic?       Ceramic or refractory containing a high degree of open or closed internal porosity.  Porosity increases the thermal insulation capability of the material. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
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Services
   Services       
   Your choices are...         
   Ceramic Part Fabrication       Suppliers can form a ceramic part to a designer's print or specifications using a casting, extrusion, isostatic pressing or other forming process, as well as additional machining and finishing steps as required. 
   Bonding / Assembly       Supplier services include assembly of ceramic components and attachment to other ceramic, metal, or plastic components.  Brazing, fasteners, or adhesives can be employed for bonding or attachment of subcomponents. 
   Design Assistance       Suppliers can assist with concepts, manufacturing costs, manufacturing techniques, and material considerations. Suppliers may also be able to assist in upgrading or redesigning, re-evaluating or modernizing existing products to increase performance and/or reduce manufacturing costs. 
   Installation       Suppliers specialize in the installation of wear-resistant liners or inserts, corrosion resistant tiles, refractory monolithic, bricks or components in-place in the process equipment on-site. The installation process may consist of pouring of a castable cement, ramming of a plastic body (ram mix), gunning or spraying or manual mortaring, fastening wear pads, and adhesive or mortar bonding of tiles or bricks.  
   Materials Development / R&D       Suppliers specialize in the development of new or specialized ceramic or refractory compositions on a contract basis to meet the requirements of specific applications. This also includes research into underlying factors or properties required to consistently control a material-critical component and maintain product performance. 
   Material Selection       Suppliers can evaluate the application and recommended the best ceramic or refractory materials to use. The supplier typically reviews the environmental conditions (temperatures, atmosphere, flow), materials or chemicals processed and equipment (furnace, boiler, turbine, etc.) to determine the structural, thermal and other property requirements. 
   Reverse Engineering       Suppliers perform the analysis or digitization of existing ceramic, metal or refractory components to duplicate or replace parts where drawings or prints have been lost or damaged. 
   Testing / Inspection       Suppliers provide inspection or testing services for existing in-service or newly fabricated refractory or ceramic components such as non-destructive testing (NDT), visual inspection, chemical analysis or structural material testing. 
   Specialty / Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary services. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Secondary Operations       
   Your choices are...         
   Brazing       Supplier services include brazing of components. Brazing is useful for bonding metals to ceramics for applications where 
   Glazing / Coating       Suppliers apply decorative and/or protective finishes such as glazes or organic resin coatings that are typically thicker than a metallized layers. 
   Hermetic Sealing       Hermetic sealing involves the formation of a gas or vacuum-tight seal between a ceramic and/or metallic components in an assembly. 
   Infiltration / Sealing       Supply use the infiltration of a resin sealant, glass or liquid metal into a porous ceramic body to close off any open porosity and provide a part that is impervious or more resistant to the absorption of water, oil or other liquids. The infiltrant or sealant may partially fill into just the surface, or fully infiltrate throughout the body. 
   Lapping / Polishing       Lapping and polishing processes uses abrasive materials, chemicals or heat fire polishing to smooth, polish, and brighten a surface.  
   Metallizing       Metallizing is a finishing process often used for materials to provide a conductive layer or electrode on the surface of a ceramic substrate for integration in electronic devices. It involves the deposition of a thin metal layer through a thin film or electroplating process. 
   Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary secondary operations. 
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Location
   Location       
   Your choices are...         
   North America       Companies are located in the United States, Canada or Mexico. 
   United States Only       Companies are located within the United States. 
   Northeast US Only       Companies are located in the Northeast U.S.; namely Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Vermont. 
   Southern US Only       Companies are located in the Southern U.S.; namely Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington D.C., and West Virginia. 
   Southwest US Only       Companies are located in the Southwest U.S.; namely Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico and Utah. 
   Northwest US Only       Companies are located in the Northwest U.S.; namely Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming. 
   Midwest US Only       Companies are  located in the Midwest U.S.; namely Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota and Wisconsin. 
   Canada Only       Companies are located in Canada. 
   South / Central America Only       Companies have facilities in South American countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Chile; or in Central American countries such as Costa Rica, Honduras, Panama. 
   Europe Only       Companies are located in Europe; namely Germany, Ireland, Italy, United Kingdom, etc. 
   South Asia Only       Companies are located in South Asia; namely India, Pakistan, Nepal, etc. 
   Near East Only       Companies are located in the Near East; namely Egypt, Israel, Saudi Arabia, etc. 
   East Asia / Pacific Only       Companies are located in East Asia; namely China, Japan, Taiwan, etc. 
   Oceania Only       Companies are located in Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and a large group of South Pacific islands that include Micronesia, Polynesia, Guam, Fiji, Tonga, etc.  
   Africa Only       Companies are located in sub-Saharan Africa. 
   Other       Other unlisted countries or regions. 
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Service Announcements
Advanced Technical Ceramics Company
Precision Ferrites and Ceramics, Inc. (PFC)