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Arc / Resistance Welding:

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Process Capability
   Arc / Resistance Welding       
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   Flux Cored Arc (FCAW)       Flux cored arc welding (FCAW) joins metal parts together by melting base and filler metals with an arc struck between a consumable filler metal wire and the base alloy workpiece. The filler metal wire or consumable electrode is fed continuously and fused with the work piece.  FCAW uses a wire with a central core filled with flux, which usually eliminates the need for a shielding gas supply. Usually, equipment suitable for FCAW is capable of performing MIG processes and vice versa. 
   MIG (GMAW)       Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is commonly known as metal inert gas (MIG) welding or referred to as short circuit transfer. MIG arc welding joins metal parts together by melting base and filler metals with an arc struck between a consumable filler metal wire and the base alloy workpiece. The filler metal wire or consumable electrode is fed continuously and fused with the workpiece. Externally supplied gas or gas mixtures provide shielding. Standard MIG welding does not transfer metal across the arc; metal is deposited only when the wire touches the work. Spray-transfer MIG welding sends a stream of tiny molten droplets across the arc from the electrode to the weld puddle. Typically, equipment suitable for MIG welding is capable of performing FCAW and vice versa.   
   Orbital / Tube Arc Welding       Orbital or tube arc welding is a specialized process for the circumferential arc welding of tube, pipe, or round bar where the workpiece is held in a specialized fixture or rotated in a lathe during welding. 
   Plasma Arc       Plasma arc welding is similar to TIG or GTAW welding, but uses a more collimated plasma stream to fuse workpieces and/or filler alloys. The torch delivers a high level of heat to a small area, producing a high quality weld with a minimal heat affected zone. The tight plasma stream is created by initiating the arc and plasma within the electrode, then forcing the stream and arc through a small orifice and transferring the arc to the workpiece. 
   Resistance - Flash / Upset Butt       Flash welding uses a series of flashes or arcs between two components of similar cross section and shape along with clamping pressure. Parts are attached to electrically insulated platens.  One platen oscillates to create flashing or arcing action when the power source is connected.  Flash welding is a combination of melting and forging processes that produces high quality welds. It is used widely in the aerospace industry. 
   Resistance - Projection       Projection welding uses a nib (solid projection) or dimple (embossed projection) in the material to preferentially concentrate current flow at a contact point resulting in lower currents, lower forces, and lower process times compared to resistance spot welding. Solids projections are designed into studs or nuts for projection welding of these fasteners to a metal surface. Dimple or embossed projections are applied in welding sheet metal assemblies. 
   Resistance - Seam       Resistance seam welding uses rotating circular electrodes to create a series of spot welds that form a seam. The quality of the seam weld varies, depending on the nugget spacing or overlap.  Leak tight seams can be made if the nuggets overlap. High frequency power supplies are used in welding tube or coil seams because a higher percentage of current flows through the edges of a material at high frequencies. 
   Resistance - Spot       Resistance spot welding uses the resistance heating generated at the contact point(s) or spots(s) to fuse and join to faying surfaces. Spot welding is used widely in the assembly of sheet metal products. Spot welders can operate at high speeds and the units can be integrated into automated systems.   
   Stick (SMAW)       Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) or stick electrode welding is one of the most widely used welding processes. The flux covering the electrode melts during welding, forming gas and slag that shield the arc and molten weld pool.  After welding, the slag must be chipped or brushed off the weld bead. The flux coating also provides a method of adding scavengers, deoxidizers, and alloying elements to the weld metal. 
   Stud / Nut Welding       Stud arc welding replaces the conventional welding stick or wire with a threaded fastener stud that fits into the end of a specialized welding gun. An arc is struck between the fastener stud and the workpiece, fusing the stud to the workpiece surface. Drawn arc, capacitive discharge, internal resistance and other processes are used to generate an arc or fuse metal. Similar processes can be applied to weld a thread nut to a workpiece. Drawn arc welding strikes an arc between the fastener and the work surface, lifting the fastener and plunging it into the molten material after a specified time. In capacitor discharge welding, a bank of capacitors is charged and then the discharged current is applied across the joint between the workpieces. Usually, one of the workpieces has a nip where arcing is initiated. The arc spreads out radially along the surfaces to be joined.  Once the surfaces are melted, a pneumatic cylinder, spring or another mechanical actuator forces the surfaces together. 
   Submerged Arc       Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a process by which metals are joined by an arc or arcs between bare metal electrodes or electrodes and the work piece. Shielding is supplied by a granular flux usually fed to the point of fusion from a flux hopper. Filler metal comes from the electrode and sometimes from a second filler rod. 
   TIG (GTAW)       Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) is commonly known as tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, a process that joins metals by melting base and filler materials by striking an arc between a tungsten electrode and the workpiece.  In normal operation, the tungsten electrode is not part of the completed weld. Typically, filler metal is used. Inert argon gas or inert gas mixtures are used for shielding. 
   Other Arc or Resistance Welders       Other unlisted arc or plasma welding processes.  
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   Frictional / Other Fusion Welding      In stud arc welding, the conventional welding stick or wire is replaced with a threaded fastener stud.  The stud fits into the end of specialized stud welding gun.  An arc is struck between the fastener stud and the work piece that fuses the stud to the work piece’s surface.  Drawn arc, capacitive discharge, internal resistance or other processes are used to generate an arc or fuse metal.  Similar processes can be applied to weld a thread nut to a work piece.
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   Electron Beam Welding       Electron beam welding fuses the workpiece with an electron beam. Electron beams provide an extremely narrow, concentrated energy source that melts a narrow region, resulting in a minimal heat affected zone. The welds can be made without filler metals or consumable electrodes. The energy density can be greater and the width of the weld smaller than even laser beam type welding processes. Electron beam welding requires a vacuum atmosphere to prevent absorption of the electrons by air. 
   Friction Welder (Inertia / Rotary)       Friction welding heats workpieces by the relative motion between the surfaces. Often, one or more workpieces are rotated at high speeds and then pressed together until the interface reaches the welding temperature. Friction welding is considered a solid-state welding process because the work surface is not normally fused. The friction welding mechanisms are more closely aligned with a forge welding process. 
   Hot Plate / Plastic Welding       Hot plate welding uses a heated plate to melt components, typically thermoplastics.  The surfaces to be welded are pressed against the hot plate, melting the surfaces.  The plate is removed and the surfaces are pressed together.  While the majority of plastic welding systems use direct contact or conduction heating, other plastic welding processes use infrared, convection, or dielectric heating. 
   Laser Welding       Laser welding uses a laser beam to melt the workpiece. Laser beams provide a very narrow, concentrated energy source that melts a narrow region, resulting in a minimal heat affected zone. The welds can be made without filler metals or consumable electrodes. 
   Oxyfuel / Oxyacetylene Welding       Oxyfuel welding uses the combustion of a fuel gas such as acetylene, propane, or hydrogen with oxygen to provide a high temperature heat source for fusing metals. Equipment in this process category covers automated systems and controls for Oxyfuel welding. 
   RF Welding       RF welding joins polymers together by using radio waves to create an electromagnetic field. In some polymers, the dipoles align themselves with this alternating field and move back and forth or vibrate, generating heat. If enough heat is produced, two workpieces can be welded together. Polymers that are used in RF welding include polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyurethane, polyamide (nylon) and thermoplastic polyester (PET). 
   Thermite / Exothermic       Thermite or exothermic welding uses an exothermic chemical reaction process to weld components together.  A metal powder, which releases a great deal of energy (highly exothermic) when reacting with oxygen, is combined with the metal oxide with a much lower heat of formation.  For example, powdered mixtures of aluminum metal and iron oxide are loaded into the weld seam or joint and ignited. The aluminum strips the oxygen away from the iron oxide leaving behind a deposit of iron and aluminum oxide. 
   Ultrasonic / Linear Friction       Ultrasonic or linear friction welding heats workpieces with ultrasonic vibration or reciprocating linear motion between the surfaces. The workpieces are clamped under moderately high forces between a welding tip and anvil. An ultrasonic transducer is coupled to the welding tip. Ultrasonic welding is considered a solid state welding process because the work surface is not normally fused.  The process can be used to join dissimilar metals and plastics. 
   Other Welding Processes       Other unlisted fusion, friction or other welding processes. 
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   Brazing & Soldering       
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   Gas Torch Brazing       Gas torch brazing uses a combustible fuel gas such as propane and air, or oxygen to heat the workpiece and melt the braze filler alloy. The molten braze alloy wets and flows across the heated work surface. Temperatures are normally high and can form a metallurgical bond; however, fusion of the workpiece does not normally occur. 
   Hot Rod / Iron       A heated rod or iron is used to heat the work surfaces and melt the solder filler alloy.  The molten solder wets and flows across the heated work surface. 
   Hot Dip Brazing / Soldering       Hot dip brazing or soldering immerses the workpieces in a molten bath of filler alloy. The bath heats the work surfaces. The molten filler alloy wets and flows across the heated work surface, or is pulled into the joint by capillary action. Excess filler alloy runs off as the part is pulled from the molten bath. 
   Induction Brazing       Induction brazing uses an induction heating source to heat the workpiece and melt the braze filler alloy. A high frequency power supply and induction coil induces current flow with the workpiece and causes internal resistance heating. The molten braze alloy wets and flows across the heated work surface. Temperatures are normally high and can form a metallurgical bond; however, fusion of the workpiece does not normally occur. 
   Infrared Soldering / Brazing       Infrared soldering or brazing uses an infrared or furnace heat source to heat the workpiece and melt the braze or solder filler alloy, which wets and flows across the heated work surface. Furnace brazing or soldering is sometimes called reflow brazing or soldering because the filler alloy is pre-applied to a part and then reflowed later during the assembly process. 
   Laser Brazing / Soldering       Laser brazing or soldering uses a laser to heat the workpiece and melt the solder or braze filler alloy, which wets and flows across the heated work surface. 
   Wave Soldering       Wave soldering is a popular mass soldering method for electronic boards. Wave soldering or flow soldering uses a molten solder bath with a traveling wave. Printed circuit boards (PCB) are positioned so that the terminations just touch the solder wave, preventing the deposition of excess solder on the PCB. Wave soldering machines consist of a fluxing unit, a pre-heater, and a solder wave. The pre-heater heats the board and component termination prior to soldering, activating the flux and removing any solvent or water from the PCB. The board is passed over a wave of solder which laps up against the bottom of the board to wet and solder the metal surfaces to be joined. 
   Resistance Brazing / Soldering       Resistance brazing and soldering uses resistance heating to heat the workpiece and melt the braze filler alloy. Contact tips or horns clamp onto the part and pass current through a point adjacent to braze joint, causing internal and contact resistance heating. The molten braze alloy wets and flows across the heated work surface.  Temperatures are normally high and can form a metallurgical bond; however, fusion of the workpiece does not normally occur. 
   Other Brazing / Soldering Unit       Other unlisted brazing or soldering processes. 
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   Surfacing / Surface Repair       
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   Hardfacing       Hard facing is a process that fuses or sprays on a deposit, coating, or cladding onto an area of a base alloy. Hardfacing is often used to rebuild and repair surfaces or surface damage.  The hard facing alloy is usually harder than the underlying base alloy. Surface layers may also be deposited to enhance electrical or thermal properties, wear or corrosion resistance, or provide other special surface characteristics.  
   Laser Cladding       Laser cladding deposits material onto the surface of a part or workpiece. Laser cladding of metals produces a 100% dense metallurgically bonded coating with minimal dilution and enhanced resistance to corrosion, abrasion and wear. Direct laser forming (DLF) from a powder bed and direct metal deposition (DMD) with spray-injected powder are two types of laser cladding processes. In the DLF process, a series of binder-free layers are deposited and then melted in the required pattern based on CAD data. In the DMD process, a laser melts a defined volume of a metal substance onto an existing form in layers. Metal powder is sprayed coaxially to the laser beam and melted onto the component. Minimal heat input and reduced processing time are two primary advantages of laser cladding over standard or traditional weld cladding. In specific applications, laser-cladding processes such as DLF restore parts to their original dimensions without secondary operations. Complete fabrication or repair of complex molds, tools or dies and rapid prototyping are common applications for laser forming or cladding. Surface or mold repair often requires the ability to duplicate a surface texture on a mold, and may include cladding or adding material to the fill cavities and then patterning the surface. DLF processes are better suited for the fabrication of new tools or prototypes. 
   Specialty / Other       Other surfacing, surface repair or specialty joining processes not listed here. 
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Additional Services
   Additional Services       
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   Assembly Services       Supplier provides secondary operations and assembly services such as electro-mechanical assemblies, ultrasonic and heat welding, printing, painting, bonding, and machining. 
   Design Assistance       Suppliers help with concepts, manufacturing costs, manufacturing techniques, and material considerations. Suppliers may also be able to assist in upgrading or redesigning and re-evaluating or modernizing existing products to increase performance and/or reduce manufacturing costs. Some suppliers offer material sourcing and CAD modeling as well. 
   Just-in-Time Delivery       Suppliers have just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing capabilities of components in order to reduce the need for inventory maintenance. 
   Testing and Inspection       Suppliers provide a number of testing and inspection services, including ultrasonic inspection, magnetic particle inspection, material hardness and/or material properties testing. 
   Low to Mid Volume Production       Suppliers can perform low-volume to mid-volume production runs. 
   High Volume Production       Suppliers can perform high-volume production runs, typically of over one week.  
   Prototype Services       Vendor has the capacity to build low quantity representative parts for use for presentations and functional testing. 
   Reverse Engineering       Companies have the capability to reverse engineer or digitize parts or products. Reverse engineering is useful in cases where components or parts for a product or equipment are no longer available commercially or in cases where drawings and documentation have been lost. The parts can be examined and digitized in order to make part drawings. Then, new replacement or duplicate parts can be fabricated for the system. Reverse engineering may include identification materials and processes as well. 
   Robotic Welding       Company has robotic welding capability. 
   CAD / CAM Support       Computer aided design or drafting (CAD) is used to design products quickly and accurately. Computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is used to fabricate products directly from CAD outputs. 
   Machining       Suppliers can produce machined components such as threaded parts or higher tolerance features for use within the welded fabrication.  
   Pressure Vessel Fabrication       Suppliers are experienced in the design, construction, and testing of pressure vessels. 
   Piping Fabrication       Suppliers are experienced in the design, construction, and testing of piping. 
   Field Welding       Suppliers have equipment and personnel to perform services in the filed or at the job site. 
   Other       Other unlisted services. 
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Materials
   Materials       
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   Aluminum       Aluminum is a silvery-white, ductile metallic element with good conductive and thermal properties. It is used to form many hard, light, corrosion-resistant alloys. 
   Cast Iron       Cast iron is a hard, brittle, nonmalleable iron-carbon alloy that is cast into shape. 
   Copper       Copper is a ductile, malleable, reddish metallic element that is one of the best conductors of heat and electricity. 
   Ornamental Iron       Iron is formed in shapes to be used for ornamental purposes such as fencing or decorative products. 
   Steel - Stainless       Stainless steel is a family of corrosion-resistant steels that contain a minimum of 10% chromium. Nickel, molybdenum, titanium, niobium, and other elements may also be present. 
   Steel - Structural       Structural steels are large, part-strength steels used to build structural components. 
   Steel - Tool       Tool steel is a group of high-carbon steels that provide combinations of high hardness, toughness, or resistance at elevated temperatures. 
   Exotic Metals       Materials include exotic metals and alloys with special properties and applications. 
   Plastic       Thermoplastic resins can be joined together by welding. 
   Other       Other unlisted materials. 
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Regional Preference
   Regional Preference       
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   North America       Companies are located in the United States, Canada or Mexico. 
   United States Only       Companies are located in the United States. 
   Northeast US Only       Companies are located in the Northeast United States, namely Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Vermont. 
   Southern US Only       Companies are located in the Southern United States, namely Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington D.C., and West Virginia. 
   Southwest US Only       Companies are located in the Southwest United States, namely Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico and Utah. 
   Northwest US Only       Companies are located in the Northwest United States, namely Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming. 
   Midwest US Only       Companies are located in the Midwest United States, namely Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota and Wisconsin. 
   Canada Only       Companies are located in Canada. 
   South / Central America Only       Companies have facilities in South American countries such as Argentina, Brazil, or Chile; or in Central American countries such as Costa Rica, Honduras, Panama, etc. 
   Europe Only       Companies are located in Europe, namely Germany, Ireland, Italy, United Kingdom, etc. 
   South Asia Only       Companies are located in South Asia, namely India, Pakistan, Nepal, etc. 
   Near East Only       Companies are located in the Near East, namely Egypt, Israel, Saudi Arabia, etc. 
   East Asia / Pacific Only       Companies are located in East Asia, namely China, Japan, Taiwan, etc. 
   Oceania Only       Companies are located in Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and a large group of South Pacific islands that include Micronesia, Polynesia, Guam, Fiji, Tonga, etc.  
   Africa Only       Companies are located in sub-Saharan Africa. 
   Other       Other unlisted countries or regions. 
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