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Elements Analyzed:

Isotope Analysis?

Trace Elements?

Test Media:

Solid Samples?

Liquid / Slurry Samples?

Gaseous Samples?

Micro Samples (<1mg)?

Analysis Method / Detection Technology:

Help with Elemental Analyzers specifications:

Elements Analyzed
   Elements Analyzed       
   Your choices are...         
   Carbon (C)       The elemental analyzer can measure the amount of carbon in a sample. 
   Halogen / TOX (F, Cl, Br, I)       The elemental analyzer can measure the amount of halogen (X) in a sample where X is fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I). 
   Hydrogen (H)       The elemental analyzer can measure the amount of hydrogen in a sample. 
   Nitrogen (N) / Protein       The elemental analyzer can measure the total amount of nitrogen in a sample. Proteins contain approximately 16% nitrogen, so a measurement of nitrogen in a food or organic sample provides an indication of protein content.  The Dumas combustion method is a technique used to determine the amount of nitrogen or protein in an organic sample. 
   Oxygen (O)       The elemental analyzer can measure the amount of oxygen in a sample. 
   Sulfur (S)       The elemental analyzer can measure the amount of sulfur in a sample. 
   Phosphorus (P)       The elemental analyzer can measure the amount of phosphorus in a sample. 
   Metal / Metalloid       The elemental analyzer can measure the amount metal or metalloid element in a sample. 
   Other       The elemental analyzer can measure the amount an unlisted or specialty element in a sample. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Isotope Analysis?       The elemental analyzer can measure the concentration of the isotopes of the element. A high purity gas feed is required to avoid atmospheric contamination. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
   Trace Elements?       The analyzer can detect and measure trace elements in a sample. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
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Test Media / Material Analyzed
   Test Media       
   Your choices are...         
   Cement / Construction Material       The elemental analyzer can measure the concentration of the element in cement, mortar, concrete, and construction materials. 
   Coal / Coke       The elemental analyzer can measure the concentration of the element in coal and coke. 
   Ferrous Metal (Steel, Cast Iron)       The elemental analyzer can measure the concentration of the element in ferrous metals and alloys such as carbon steel, alloy steel, stainless steel, tool steel and cast iron. 
   Fuel / Oil       The elemental analyzer can measure the concentration of the element in fuel, oil, greases and lubricants. 
   Inorganic Material       The elemental analyzer can measure the concentration of the element in inorganic materials. 
   Minerals / Ores       The elemental analyzer can measure the concentration of the element in minerals and ores. 
   Nonferrous (Copper, Aluminum)       The elemental analyzer can measure the concentration of the element in nonferrous metals and alloys such as aluminum, copper, brass, bronze, titanium, zinc and magnesium. 
   Organic Material / Chemical       The elemental analyzer can measure the concentration of the element in organic materials and chemicals. 
   Plant / Animal Material       The elemental analyzer can measure the concentration of the element in food, plant materials, natural fibers, and animal matter or human tissue. 
   Refractory / Ceramic Material       The elemental analyzer can measure the concentration of the element in refractory and ceramic materials. 
   Semiconductors / Electronic Materials       The elemental analyzer can measure the concentration of the element in semiconductor or electronic materials. 
   Soil / Sediments       The elemental analyzer can measure the concentration of the element in soils, earth, or sedimentary materials. 
   Other       The elemental analyzer can measure the concentration of the element in other unlisted or specialty material or chemicals. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Solid Samples?       Samples in the form of a solid or powder can be analyzed. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
   Liquid / Slurry Samples?       Samples in the form of a liquid, slurry or paste can be analyzed. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
   Gaseous Samples?       Samples in the form of a gas or vapor can be analyzed. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
   Micro Samples (<1mg)?       The elemental analyzer can determine the concentration of an element in micro samples or sample weighing less than a milligram. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
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Analysis Method / Detection Technology
           
   Your choices are...         
   Carrier Gas Hot Extraction (HE)       Carrier gas hot extraction (HE or CGHE) is used to determine both the total diffusible hydrogen and the residual hydrogen content in steel and steel welds where hydrogen embrittlement can reduce strength and cause failures. In carrier gas hot extraction, the hydrogen is extracted or evolved from the sample. The evolved diffusible hydrogen is detected with a sensitive and long-term stable thermal conductivity detector (TCD). Carrier gas hot extraction after activation with photons (PAA-HE) is a related method under development, which enhances the hot extraction method. 
   Dry Colorimetric       Dry colorimetric methods use a tape or chemical indicating material that changes color when exposed to a specific element or chemical. The amount of color change is measured with an optical or color sensor to determine provide quantitative analysis after calibration. 
   Dry Combustion Analysis       Combustion analysis is an important type of gravimetric analysis. In combustion analysis, a sample is typically burned and excess oxygen and products are measured. Combustion analyses can be used to measure the quantities of C, H, N, and S in a material or chemical. Combustion methods can also measure the amount of halogens in organic matter. High temperature or pyrolysis furnaces are used to combust or oxidize the sample. The Dumas combustion method is a technique used to determine the amount of nitrogen or protein in an organic sample. 
   Electrochemical / Coulometric       Electrochemical detectors measure the amount of an element in a sample by reacting the liberated element in a specific electrochemical cell, fuel or electrode and then quantifying the electrode weight change or coulometric readings. An element or reaction product can be plated or deposited onto an electrode. The difference in the weights of the electrodes before and after electrochemical reaction is measured on a precision balance, which indicates the weight of individual element. 
   Gas Chromatograph       The analyzer has an option for interfacing with a gas chromatograph. 
   Inert Gas Fusion (IGF)       The inert gas fusion (IGF) principle involves fusion of the sample material in a graphite crucible heated to the melting point using a furnace with water-cooled copper electrodes. The gas fusion analysis (GFA) principle is also commonly termed a melt extraction (ME) since the total oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen composition is extracted via sample melting. A weighed sample is melted in a graphite crucible in a stream of helium. The oxygen in the sample combines with carbon to form CO which is converted by a catalyst to CO2. An infrared cell determines the CO2 content from which the weight % of oxygen in the sample is calculated. Molecular nitrogen is released from the sample and is separated from any hydrogen and carbon monoxide liberated from the sample. A thermal conductivity cell determines the nitrogen content from which the weight % of nitrogen in the sample is calculated. A nickel flux is used for metals that melt at high temperatures. Calibration is verified with NIST or NIST traceable standard reference materials of known oxygen and nitrogen content. Inert gas fusion method useful for oxygen analysis. The principle is to fuse the sample in a high purity graphite crucible in the furnace by taking it to very high temperatures (3000°C) in an inert gas. The Carbon crucibles are effectively resistors that supply the heat necessary to fuse the sample, as well as Carbon for the reduction of Oxygen in the sample. The Oxygen in the sample reacts with the Carbon in the crucible to form CO or CO2, which is then measured by infrared detection. For reactive metals a flux is also required to help the release of the Oxygen from the sample. The most common flux is high purity Nickel and the amount added to a sample varies but is typically in the ratio of 10 parts flux to 1 part sample. 
   Infrared Detector (IR Cell)       The evolved, extracted or reacted gases from the element analyzed are detected using infrared detector, infrared absorption detector or IR cell. 
   Kjeldahl Method       The Kjeldahl method was developed by Johan Kjeldahl to measure the nitrogen or protein in an organic material. In the Kjeldahl method, the protein or organic material is digested or broken down by breaking all the bonds in the molecule converting the nitrogen from the protein into ammonium ions. Sulphuric acid combined with heat, salt and a catalyst are used to rapidly digest the protein. After the ammonia is formed, the ammonia is extracted from the sample by distillation. Finally, the amount of ammonia or nitrogen is measured using titration, colorometric or other technologies. 
   Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA)       In neutron activation analysis methods, a sample is bombarded with neutrons activating the release of gamma rays, which are detected. Two types of neutron activation analysis include Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) and Pulsed Fast and Thermal Neutron Analysis (PFTNA).  Neutron activation analysis is a nondestructive method. 
   Spectrometric Detection       A spectroscopic detector is used to analyze and measure the element such as FTIR, XRF, Spark-OES, ICP-MS, ICP-OES, Atomic Absorption (AA) or UV-Fluorescence. Some elemental analyzers use thermal conductivity detectors or IR cells for initial quantification and then interface with a spectrometer such as a mass spectrometer (MS) or isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) more detailed analysis. Elemental analyzers with the option to interface with a mass spectrometer feed the evolved gases to a spectrometer. 
   Thermal Conductivity Detector       The evolved, extracted or reacted gases from the element analyzed are detected using a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). 
   Specialty / Other       Other specialized, proprietary or patented elemental analysis method or detection technology. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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