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Form Factor:

Corrosion Measurement:

Technology / Method:

Programmable / Digital Control Unit?

Pulsed Unit?

Rotating Probe Drive?

Uses Magnetic Sensors?

Help with Corrosion and Electrochemical Instruments specifications:

Instrument Type
   Form Factor:       
   Your choices are...         
   Portable / Handheld / Mobile       The unit is portable or handheld. 
   Monitoring System       Monitor or monitoring system to continuously detect or measure flaws, thickness or corrosion in production line, plant, production or field applications. 
   Other       Other unlisted or proprietary form factors. 
   Bench / Rack / Cabinet       The device is a stand-alone unit that can be placed on a bench, desktop, or it can be rack mounted. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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Corrosion Measurement
           
   Your choices are...         
   General Corrosion Detection       Internal or external corrosion caused by chemical attack or oxidation due to high temperature gases. 
   Corrosion Rate Meter       Corrosion rate meters are instruments or monitors that measure or indicate a metal's weight loss due to corrosion. Generally, the corrosion rate is expressed in the mils per year (mpy) that occur as the conversion to corrosion proceeds. 
   Corrosion Thickness       The thickness of a corroded layer or oxide film adhered onto the surface of a material. 
   Other       Other, not listed, types of flaw detection. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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Technology / Method
   Technology / Method:       
   Your choices are...         
   Acoustic Emission       Acoustic emission instruments are designed to monitor conditions and detect changes in mechanical, electrical and process systems. In electrical power distribution systems, they are used to detect shorting or arcing. In mechanical systems, flaws also provide specific acoustic or vibrational responses. For example, if a break, deformation or other failure occurs, acoustic emission (AE) sensors can detect the burst of high frequency caused by the event. Continuous acoustic emissions are associated with dislocation movement and the resulting strain or deformation. Bursts or short pulses of acoustic emissions signals are produced by micro-yielding, twinning, and crack formation. Melting, phase transformation, thermal stresses, fiber breakage and fiber-matrix debonding in composites also result in acoustic emissions.    Monitoring acoustic emissions can also access the location and severity. This NDT technique is particularly useful in determining the structural adequacy of tanks and pressure vessels.  AE is also used for the detection of faults or leakage in pressure vessels, tanks, and piping systems. Welds and stress corrosion cracking can be monitored on-line with AE techniques. 
   Coating Flaw / Holiday Detector       A variety of coating flaws exist such as pin point discontinuities, openings or holidays; thin spots; bubbles, blisters, inclusions, streaks, waviness and chicken tracks. 
   Eddy Current / Electromagnetic       Eddy current, penetrating radar, and other electromagnetic techniques are used to detect or measure flaws, bond or weld integrity, thickness, and electrical conductivity, and to detect the presence of rebar or metals. Eddy current is the most widely applied electromagnetic NDT technique. This method is also useful in sorting alloys and verifying heat treatment.  Eddy current testing uses an electromagnet to induce an eddy current in a conductive sample. The response of the material to the induced current is sensed. Since the probe does not have to contact the work surface, eddy current testing is useful on rough surfaces or surfaces with wet films or coatings. 
   Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS)       EIS is a powerful and accurate method for measuring corrosion rates.  The corrosion rate at the monitored interface is proportional to the charge transfer resistance or polarization resistance.  The actual relationship requires modeling of the interface for useful interpretation of the results.  An important advantage of EIS over other laboratory techniques is the possibility of using very small amplitude signals without significantly disturbing the properties being measured. To make an EIS measurement, a small amplitude signal, usually a voltage between 5 to 50 mV, is applied to a specimen over a range of frequencies of 0.001 Hz to 100,000 Hz. The EIS instrument records the real (resistance) and imaginary (capacitance) components of the impedance response of the system. 
   Electrochemical Noise (EN)       Electrochemical noise (EN) is a useful, sensitive, and nonintrusive technique for corrosion monitoring. Fluctuations of potential or current of a corroding metallic specimen are monitored to gage and understand the corrosion process.  Electrochemical noise is used to investigate localized corrosion processes such as pitting or stress corrosion cracking (SCC), exfoliation, and erosion-corrosion in either laboratory or diverse and complex industrial environments. During localized corrosion, film formation, passivation breakdown or pit propagation processes generate the electrochemical noise that is observed. The most traditional way to analyze electrochemical noise data has been to transform time records in the frequency domain in order to obtain power spectra with FFT methods. 
   Electromagnetic Acoustic Resonance       Electromagnetic acoustic resonance (EMAR) uses a non-contact electromagnetic transducer to impart a signal for resonant acoustic analysis. The non-contact EM-induced signal produces a pure resonant response. Mechanical vibration from surrounding machinery does not influence the ultrasonic signals in the materials or parts being inspected. Localized or wide acoustic fields can be generated, depending what features need to be isolated and measured. Small surface or subsurface flaws or anomalies can also be isolated. Specifically, the entire part can be resonated for elastic stiffness and structural integrity assessments. 
   Galvanostats / Potentiostats       A galvanostat automatically maintains an electrode at a constant current or a controlled set or scanned current value with respect to a suitable reference electrode. A potentiostat is an instrument for automatically maintaining an electrode in an electrolyte at a constant potential or or a controlled set or scanned potentials values with respect to a suitable reference electrode.  Galvanostats or potentiostats are typically used in laboratory settings to provide conditions for the evaluation of corrosion systems. 
   Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR)       Polarization resistance is particularly useful as a method to rapidly identify corrosion upsets and initiate remedial action, thereby prolonging plant life and minimizing unscheduled downtime. The technique is utilized to maximum effect, when installed as a continuous monitoring system in almost all types of water-based, corrosive environments. The measurement of polarization resistance has very similar requirements to the measurement of full polarization curves.  The method uses a series of electrodes, a voltmeter, an ammeter, and a current source. The direction of current flow is reversed in the test causing the test electrode to become the anode with an accelerated corrosion rate.  The current level is increased to maintain a constant polarization potential voltage.  The corrosion rate is directly proportional to the current level [Corrosion rate = ((K) (I)].  The corrosion rate information is not as accurate as corrosion coupon data. There are essentially four different methods of making the measurement according to whether the current or the potential is controlled and whether the current (or potential) is swept smoothly from one value to another, or simply switched between two values. In addition, the measurement may be made between two nominally identical electrodes (a two-electrode system), or a conventional three-electrode system (working, reference and counter) may be used. 
   Optical / Laser       Optical-based NDT instruments use techniques such as laser shearography, magneto-optical methods, and holographic interferometry to detect flaws and residual stress, or to measure thickness. 
   Radiographic / X-ray       Radiographic or X-ray equipment uses penetrating X-rays or gamma rays to capture images of the internal structure of a part or finished product. The density and composition of the internal features will alter their intensity or density in the X-ray image.  Densitometers are used to quantify the density variations in the X-ray image. Penetrameters or other X-ray opaque gage references are located with the part during imaging for sizing of internal cracks, pores, defects or other features. 
   Ultrasonic       Ultrasonic (UT) inspection techniques are used to detect surface and subsurface flaws, or to measure thickness. Beams of high frequency acoustic energy are introduced into the material and subsequently retrieved. Distance calculations are based on the speed of sound through the material under evaluation. The most widely used of all UT techniques is the pulse-echo technique. Flaws are detected and sizes estimated by comparing the amplitude of a reflected echo from an interface (flaw or back surface) with that of a reference interface of known size. 
   Other       Other unlisted or unspecified technologies. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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Features
   Programmable / Digital Control Unit?       The unit is controlled by computer programs, or by other digital methods. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
   Pulsed Unit?       The system functions by producing short-range pulses of X-rays. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
   Rotating Probe Drive?       Rotating probe drives have a drive system that rotates the probe to radially scan the inner diameter of a pipe, tube, cylinder, liner, or other internal surface for flaws. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
   Uses Magnetic Sensors?       The instrument is capable of using magnetic induction probes in addition to eddy current probes. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
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