Externally supplied utilities are
shown in Table 5.4 for study cases. The boiler produces saturated steam at 185 psia, from
which 85 psia steam for process uses and... Furthermore, the 85 psia throttled steam is desuperheated to saturation by condensate injec-
tion via a mixing tee, while the slightly superheated 25 psia steam is used in the deaerator
directly. Boilerfeed water (BFW) is composed of a polished (i.e., finely filtered ) returned proc-
ess condensate portion and a makeup fresh water portion softened by a packed bed process
Utilities Costs, September 1980 In most boiler feedwater systems,
the major portion of the feed-
water is the returned steam condensate from turbine condensers and/or
process heat exchanges. This water is relatively pure and requires
only minimal treatment before it is recycled to the boiler. ...or no treatment is given to the
returned condensate; above 450 psig, a polishing treatment is normally... If the contaminants are predominantly suspended solids,
a septum filter would be used. Dissolved solfds are generally removed
in a mixed bed ion exchanger, designed for high throughput operation
and up to 285OF.
Nalco Water Handbook, Third Edition > The Power Industry
For the best cost performance, regenerable mixed bed polishers are commonly operated at service flow rates over 50 gpm/ft 2 (122 m 3/[h · m 2]), about 10 times the rate employed in raw water demineralization. Nonregenerable powdered resin polishers have found wide acceptance in utility systems. The finely ground resin particles provide good filtration and excellent kinetics for ion exchange. This type of condensate polisher is typically operated at service flow rates of about 4 gpm/ft 2... Virtually all once-through boilers , because of their especially high-purity water requirements, employ polishing of feedwater.
Managing CO2 Emissions in the Chemical Industry
Raw water has to be conditioned to be used in many forms and each treatment stage produces one kind of utility water . ...of chemicals aiming to aggregate small particles into bigger ones, and a slow mixing called flocculation, provokes... Additional removal of small particles is provided by pressure filters using sand and gravel as filtering media. All water for industrial use is extracted from this stage, but for boiler use, further treatment is... For high pressure boilers, water quality is very restrictive, so a supplementary ions removal is demanded, called polishing , using basically the same process of resin beds , but with a higher efficiency and deeper capture capacity. The main actions to reduce energy consumption are in condensate recovery and avoiding water losses in general...
The makeup water requirement of 4,500 gpm is divided 95% for
process and utility cooling water additions and 5% for boiler feed
makeup. If after suitable filtration or polishing , the process con-
densates are recycled, the feedwater requirement is reduced by 700 gpm. The suggested circuits for process and utility steam are illus-
trated schematically by Figure 6.3. as shown in Figure
6.3, is collected, polished by mixed bed ion-exchange and returned--via
feedwater heaters--to the Koppers-Totzek gasifier and utility HP
Steam Plant Operation, Ninth Edition > Auxiliary Steam-Plant Equipment
Properly treated makeup water is added directly to the condensate to form boiler feedwater. However, in cases where steam is used in industrial processes, the steam condensate is contaminated with corrosion... Also, in both utility and industrial applications, condenser leaks can allow cooling water to contaminate the condensate. Demineralized systems that are installed to purify condensate are known as condensate polishing systems. ...condensate polishing system that uses precoat materials designed to provide the combination of filtration and ion exchange... ...impurities to be removed is relatively low, precoat systems are preferred over deep- bed demineralizer systems because... Another type of condensate polisher is the deep- or mixed -bed type, which consists of a service...
Successful Trouble Shooting for Process Engineers
Continuous steam -tu bed ryer Example results of brainstorming: Too much water in wash cycle for dryer to handle, cake buildup on... 5 Polishing Your Skills: Problem-Solving Process from the screen too wet, fines carryover to the centrifuge causing blinding in centrifuge, peel cycle too short, peel cycle too long, filter cycle too short, filter... ...of steam from the boiler house has changed, the condensate trapping on the dryer... ...�? something a long distance away from the dryer is causing problems �? utilities ? steam? wash water? mix of symptoms and roots causes; lots of duplication; most feasible ideas in the first 32 ideas...
System Chemistry Considerations for Nuclear Steam Generators
"POWDERED RESIN" CONDENSATE POLISHING process equipment on various types of filter candle
substrates. ...resins are also applied in the
ammonia and/or other forms and the resin mix can be
varied... These systems are believed to be better filters
than deep- bed systems with, of course, lower total... ...better protection for longer
times to allow orderly shutdown, especially where
"high solids" cooling waters are used. ...in the steam
generator itself to remove suspended corrosion prod-
ucts from the boiler water during hot... A common utility opinion was that the
cleaning could be done during normal annual mainte-
States > Illinois > State > Forms > Environmental Protection Agency > Air > Instruction and Inquiry > Air Pollution Control Permit Forms > [IL FORM epa] APC-20...
...exclusively soaps, detergents, surfactants, waxes, glycerin, vegetable oils, greases, animal fats, sweetener, corn syrup,
aqueous salt solutions or aqueous caustic solutions, provided an organic solvent has not been mixed with such materials; or... ...refined distillate oil, hydrocarbon condensate from natural gas pipeline... All organic material- water single or multiple compartment effluent water separator facilities for Illinois crude oil of... Equipment for carving, cutting, routing, turning, drilling, machining, sawing, surface grinding, sanding, planing, buffing, sand blast cleaning, shot
blasting, shot peening, or polishing ceramic artwork, leather, metals (other than beryllium... ...an appropriately operated cyclonic inertial separator (cyclone), filter , electro-static precipitor or... ...bleach or detergents that are:
1) Located at a source and process clothing, bedding and other fabric... Activities associated with the construction, on-site repair, maintenance or dismantlement of buildings, utility lines, pipelines, wells... Water treatment or storage systems, as follows:
1) Systems for potable water or boiler feedwater; and
Nalco Water Handbook, Third Edition > The Petroleum Industry
...feed, preheated to 400 to 700°F (204 to 371°C), passes through a fixed- bed reactor, where it... Major wastewater streams come from overhead accumulators on fractionators and steam strippers and sour water stripper bottoms. Utility Systems The pretreatment of boiler feedwater is one of the most important steps in efficient boiler operation. Many refineries use hot process softeners, filters , ion exchange trains and reverse osmosis units. ...refineries, the steam generated by the process usually condenses as an acceptable quality condensate for return to... In addition, depending on the pressure of the system, a condensate polishing unit may be installed to... However, if collected in a common sewer, this flow is usually mixed with oily waste after API...
States > Illinois > State > Regulations > Title 35 - Environmental Protection > Subtitle B - Air Pollution > Chapter I - Pollution Control Board > [35 Ill. Adm...
...containing virgin or re-refined distillate oil (including kerosene and diesel fuel), hydrocarbon condensate from natural gas... r) All organic material- water single or multiple compartment effluent water separator facilities for Illinois crude oil... ...surface grinding, sanding, planing, buffing, sand blast cleaning, shot blasting, shot peening, or polishing ceramic artwork, leather... ...Vented externally with emissions controlled by an appropriately operated cyclonic inertial separator (cyclone), filter , electro-static precipitor... ...salt solutions or aqueous caustic solutions, provided an organic solvent has not been mixed with such materials; 1) Located at a source and process clothing, bedding and other fabric items used at the source... ...Activities associated with the construction, on-site repair, maintenance or dismantlement of buildings, utility lines, pipelines, wells... 1) Systems for potable water or boiler feedwater; .