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  • Finite Element Correction for Stress Relaxation in Complex Geometries (.pdf)
    Subsurface x-ray diffraction residual stress measurements are necessary to fully assess the magnitude and depth of stress distributions. Layers of material must be removed for subsurface measurement electrolytically to avoid plastic deformation.
  • Factors that Determine Symbol Readability (.pdf)
    Readability is determined by the extent to which an imager can decode a directly marked symbol. Primary factors that affect readability are: Contrast, Quiet Zone, Error Correction, Element Size, and Mark Consistency.
  • Focusing Objective Theory (.pdf)
    Some focusing applications may require a higher degree of aberration correction than can be achieved in single lenses such as Bestforms. Whether correction over larger apertures, several wavelengths or a wider field is needed, it may be necessary to use multi-element lens objective.
  • X-Ray Diffraction Characterization of Residual Stress and Hardness Distribution in Induction Hardened Gears (.pdf)
    removal and correction for the resulting stress. relaxation. The corrections may dominate the results. obtained at depths near the case/core interface. Traditional closed-form corrections may be inadequate. when applied to gear teeth. A novel finite element. analysis (FEA) correction technique
  • Introduction to reflective aberration corrected holographic diffraction gratings
    The reflective diffraction grating is the heart of most spectroscopy systems today. Before the 1950's, the prism. was the primary dispersive element in spectrometer designs. The use of an epoxy replication process in the. 1950's led to the mass production of plane ruled reflective diffraction
  • Dissecting high-performance electrohydraulic valves
    Things aren't black and white when choosing a servo or proportional valve. Servo and servoproportional valves control pressure or flow and are selected based on application. Proportional and servovalves control flow or pressure via a sliding spool element. First-stage configurations for nozzle

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