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  • [Chapter 3] 3.2 A Line-Up of Characters<
    that needs to be escaped with a backslash if you want to match a period. This regular expression matches a period followed by three spaces.\.The backslash is typically used to match troff requests or macros that begin with a dot. \.nfYou can also use the backslash to escape the backslash. For instance
  • [Chapter 5] 5.6 List<
    this command to detect "invisible " characters in the input.[6][6] GNU sed displays certain characters, such as carriage return, using the ANSI C escape sequences, instead of straight octal. Presumably, this is easier to comprehend for those who are familiar with C (or awk, as we'll see later in the book
  • [Chapter 11] 11.2 Freely Available awks<
    Release 3 UNIX systems.In 1989, for System V Release 4, several new things were added. The only difference between this version and POSIX awk is that POSIX uses CONVFMT for number-to-string conversions, while the 1989 version still used OFMT. The new features were:Escape characters in command-line
  • Regular Expressions
    employing regular expressions whether they permit matching of newline characters; if not stated otherwise, the use of literal newline characters or any escape sequence equivalent produces undefined results. Those utilities (like grep) that do not allow newline characters to match are responsible
  • [Chapter 5] 5.3 Substitution<
    , or in the replacement text, use a backslash (\) to escape it.Once upon a time, computers stored text in fixed-length records. A line ended after so many characters (typically 80), and then the next line started. There was no explicit character in the data to mark the end of one line and the beginning of the next
  • [Chapter 9] 9.2 String Functions<
    surrounds any occurrence of "UNIX " with the troff font-change escape sequences.gsub(/UNIX/, "\\fB &\\fR ")If the input is "the UNIX operating system ", the output is "the \fBUNIX\fR operating system ".In Chapter 4, Writing sed Scripts, we presented the following sed script named do.outline:sed -n ' s
  • [Chapter 13] 13.6 readsource - Format Program Source Files for troff<
    print. I also want to avoid typos in print. for text processing, it should be easy to include the original sources into the text. But there are some characters (especially " " and ". " and ", " at the beginning of a line) that I must escape to prevent interpretation by I often want excerpts from
  • [Chapter 12] 12.3 Spare Details of the masterindex Program<
    the escape sequences from disturbing the sort.Yet another way is to do something similar to what we did for "see also " entries. Because special characters are ignored in the sort, we could use the input.idx program to convert a troff font change sequence such as "\fB " to "~~~ " and "\fI