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  • Wired 8.08: A Helium Shortage?
    welding (helium creates an inert atmosphere around the flame) and leak detection (hydrogen has a smaller atom, but it usually forms a diatomic molecule, H2). NASA uses it to pressurize space shuttle fuel tanks: The Kennedy Space Center alone uses more than 75 million cubic feet annually. Liquid helium
  • Liquid Cooling a Laser for System Optimization
    systems, cold plates, and heat exchangers are a few of the cooling technologies used in laser systems' liquid cooling loops. Low-powered lasers, such as small helium-neon or argon-ion lasers, may not require cooling or may come with their own cooling fan, which is generally sufficient. Some smaller
  • Wired 12.04: The God Particle and the Grid
    detector, part of the Large Hadron Collider now under construction at CERN, the famed European particle physics lab outside Geneva. When the LHC is finished in 2007, it will be the largest accelerator in the world. Massive superconducting magnets cooled to near absolute zero by liquid helium
  • MICRO: Eigler Interview
    affair. My tour coincided with an experiment that he and his colleagues were performing using one of the two liquid-helium-temperature scanning tunneling microscopes (STMs) that populate their tight quarters. Under high vacuum, the microscopes are cooled to very low temperatures with liquid helium
  • Monitoring residual and process gases in PVD processes: The importance of sensitivity How much quadrupole mass analyzer sensitivity should be required for meaningful monitoring of residual gas levels in sputter deposition processes?
    of dedicated test wafers. However, it has been found that these tests are not sensitive enough to detect films with marginal electromigration resistance. Resistivity ratio measurements (at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen or liquid helium temperature) are more sensitive but time consuming
  • Medical Device Link .
    connectors are available that will seal over the ends of these types of catheters (Figure 3). Alternatively, high-pressure helium can be used within the device, but this can be an expensive testing method for high-volume products unless the helium is reused or reclaimed in some way. Liquid
  • Medical Device Link .
    , gross-leak detection has been performed by placing the test device in a liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC) bath, using a PFC with a low boiling point. (Historically this test used chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs. Use of CFCs in this test process has been largely replaced by the use of chemically similar
  • Medical Device Link .
    rates that exceed 70 C per minute. The liquid-nitrogen-cooled chamber features high volume and adjustable air distribution to direct airflow rapidly over the product. Access to the internal chamber is provided through doors on the front and back of the unit. The vibration system uses a thermal

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