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  • Microwave Material Measurements Without Cables
    Measuring the performance of microwave materials requires a test apparatus that includes a measurement fixture and a microwave analyzer, which are usually connected with microwave or radio frequency (RF) cables. These RF cables are the bane of many measurement scenarios and can be a significant
  • The Effect of High Stability Reference Oscillators on System Phase Noise
    beyond the loop bandwidth is the attenuated multiplied reference plus the phase noise of the phase-locked microwave source. The phase noise of the microwave source closer to the carrier than the phase-locked loop bandwidth is attenuated by the phase-locked loop. This is summed with the multiplied
  • Measurement and Control Basics, Fourth Edition
    valuable as a concise and easy-to-read reference source on the subject. This new edition provides expanded coverage of pressure, level, flow,. temperature, analytical measurement, and process control computers. Material on the proper tuning of control loops was added to Chapter 1,. and expanded coverage
  • Looking Into Noise-Figure Measurement Uncertainty
    Microwave modeling software has enabled extremely low noise-figure (NF) amplifiers to become commonplace. There was a time when low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) below 0.7 dB were found only on specialized, expensive systems such as MRI machines or highly sensitive scientific radiometers. However, within
  • Using Noise for RF Receiver Built-In Test Applications
    Microwave thermal noise has long been employed for built-in test (BIT) of receivers and radiometers. Today's compact solid-state noise sources are broadband and extremely stable making them very useful signal sources for a variety of tests. What is not commonly known is how many different types
  • Pectin Extraction From Citrus and Sugar Beets
    Chemists Marshall L. Fishman (left) and Hoa K. Chau prepare orange peels for flash extraction of pectin using microwave heating under pressure. Eastern Regional Research Center (ERRC) in Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania, researchers in the Crop Conversion Science and Engineering Research Unit are at work
  • Effects of Ultrasonics on Health
    Ultrasonic energy is mechanical energy as contrasted with other forms of energy such as nuclear particle radiation (x-rays, beta rays), electromagnetic energy (radio frequency waves, diathermy, microwave radiation), or invisible light (infrared, ultraviolet light waves). The source of ultrasonic
  • Solid-state RF switches
    impedance at higher frequencies. A simple PIN diode switch is turned on by applying a dc bias that makes the diode conduct. This lets an RF source pass a signal through the diode to a load. Applying a negative dc bias turns off the diode by widening the diode depletion layer and thus blocks the RF

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