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  • Technical Article: Magnetic Induction Voltage Regulator Operation
    Another means of changing output voltage in a transformer is to alter the physical orientation of the primary and secondary relative to each other. In a transformer the primary windings produce a magnetic flux field that induces current to flow in the secondary windings. Physically repositioning
  • Technical Article: Tap Changing Voltage Regulator Operation
    Simply said, when a transformer has an equal number of winding turns on the primary (input) and secondary (output), the input and output voltage should be equal. By adding or subtracting the number of turns on the secondary, the output voltage can be changed - up or down, respectively. Rather than
  • Technical Article: Electronic Tap Switching Voltage Regulator
    , the electronic voltage regulator will have taps on the secondary side of the transformer controlled (on or off) by semiconductor switches (like the silicon controlled rectifier - SCR). Within the classification of electronic tap switching voltage regulator there are two distinct types: the full power
  • Ultra Low Voltage Imaging with Hitachi's S-4800 FE-SEM
    Field emission SEMs are used primarily for their performance at low voltage. The brightness of the source provides the much needed signal for high-resolution secondary electron imaging. Microscopists often work in this region to see such benefits as fine surface detail and minimal specimen charging
  • Transformer Theory
    . The energy applied to the primary must be in the form of a changing voltage which creates a constantly changing current in the primary, since only a changing magnetic field will produce a current in the secondary.
  • . This magnetic field induces an alternating (AC) voltage in the secondary coils that are in proximity to the core. As with any transformer, the voltage of the induced signal in the secondary coil is linearly related to the number of coils. The basic transformer relation is: (1)
  • Active and Passive Isolators
    for the transmission of direct current (DC) signals. The DC measuring signal is therefore first converted into an alternating voltage using an electronic chopper. This AC voltage is transmitted to the secondary circuit by a transformer, where it is rectified in sync with the chopper frequency (see Fig. 3
  • The hot and cold of LVDTs
    that has a high impedance is used. But resistance changes in the secondary will factor into the transfer of power to a low-impedance load. For example, if the load impedance is 50 x greater than the secondary-winding resistance, a 50% rise in secondary resistance would only reduce output voltage
  • Dynamic sensing with LVDTs
    signal through mutual induction. A typical two-element LVDT consists of a fixed frame containing primary and secondary coils, and a movable core. The frame usually contains one primary winding sandwiched between the two secondary windings. A voltage of constant amplitude and frequency is applied
  • Feature of a New Electron Detector for the S-4700 and Some Initial Applications (S-4700 SEM 94)
    has been strongly requested. In response to this requirement, we have developed a new and unique electron detector system that allows collection of information from both secondary and backscattered electrons and using them for optimum imaging of samples. Generally secondary electrons are sensitive
  • Hitachi Backscatter Detector for S-3000 Series SEMs
    Backscattered Electron Detector Secondary electron images are the most frequently obtained images from the SEM. However, the backscattered electron (BSE) image provides important information and in some cases more information than the secondary image. BSE's vary in their amount and direction due

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