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  • Ultra Low Voltage Imaging with Hitachi's S-4800 FE-SEM
    Field emission SEMs are used primarily for their performance at low voltage. The brightness of the source provides the much needed signal for high-resolution secondary electron imaging. Microscopists often work in this region to see such benefits as fine surface detail and minimal specimen charging
  • Transformer Theory
    . The energy applied to the primary must be in the form of a changing voltage which creates a constantly changing current in the primary, since only a changing magnetic field will produce a current in the secondary.
  • . This magnetic field induces an alternating (AC) voltage in the secondary coils that are in proximity to the core. As with any transformer, the voltage of the induced signal in the secondary coil is linearly related to the number of coils. The basic transformer relation is: (1)
  • Linear Variable Differential Transformer Technology
    Differential transformers are electromagnetic devices for translating the displacement of a magnetic armature into an AC voltage, which is a linear function of the displacement. They are basically composed of primary and secondary coils wound on an air core and a movable armature is used to control
  • The hot and cold of LVDTs
    that has a high impedance is used. But resistance changes in the secondary will factor into the transfer of power to a low-impedance load. For example, if the load impedance is 50 x greater than the secondary-winding resistance, a 50% rise in secondary resistance would only reduce output voltage
  • Dynamic sensing with LVDTs
    signal through mutual induction. A typical two-element LVDT consists of a fixed frame containing primary and secondary coils, and a movable core. The frame usually contains one primary winding sandwiched between the two secondary windings. A voltage of constant amplitude and frequency is applied
  • Feature of a New Electron Detector for the S-4700 and Some Initial Applications (S-4700 SEM 94)
    has been strongly requested. In response to this requirement, we have developed a new and unique electron detector system that allows collection of information from both secondary and backscattered electrons and using them for optimum imaging of samples. Generally secondary electrons are sensitive
  • Hitachi Backscatter Detector for S-3000 Series SEMs
    Backscattered Electron Detector Secondary electron images are the most frequently obtained images from the SEM. However, the backscattered electron (BSE) image provides important information and in some cases more information than the secondary image. BSE's vary in their amount and direction due
  • Power-Supply Fundamentals
    Electronic equipment requiring dc power must adjust the ac input to a usable level with transformers or switching transistors and use a rectifier stage to convert the ac to dc. Primary (nonrechargeable) or secondary (rechargeable) batteries generally power portable equipment and use a wide variety
  • 16HV785: Programmable Lead Acid Battery Charger
    features include an internal voltage regulator and an internal clock oscillator that reduce external component count. The 16HV785 can be configured as either a Switch mode or a linear charger. In Switch mode, it will support either primary or secondary side control. In Linear mode, it can be designed
  • T1/E1/J1 Asymmetrical Protection (.pdf)
    on voltage for the A2106 is 170 volts from tip to ground and ring to ground. This is compliant with TIA-968 (formerly known as FCC Part 68) section 4.4.5.2 titled "Intentional paths to ground". The secondary side of the transformer has the P0080SA MC SIDACtor (R) device that will limit differential voltages

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