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  • Determination of Water Hardness
    Originally the hardness of water was defined as the capacity of water for destroying the lather of soap. The hardness was determined by a titration with a standard soap solution. Metal ions including have the ability to cause hardness. However, today water hardness means the total calcium
  • Determination of Calcium in Water
    Calcium, when complexed with carbonate, contributes to the total water hardness. Calcium is typically introduced to ground water as it passes over limestone, gypsum, gypsiferrons, shale or dolomite. Carbon Dioxide from the air dissolves in waster causing calcium carbonate. Small concentrations
  • Future Directions in Water Soluble Polymers for Detergent Applications
    by interacting with nonionic surfactants by various mechanisms. Another is to substitute sulfonic acid groups for carboxylic acid groups. By adjusting the amount and type of the sulfonic acid, the polymers show improvements such as increase water hardness ion tolerance, improved surfactant
  • Produced Water Recovery at Seneca Resources Using Short Bed Ion Exchange
    . exchange softener that is regenerated with salt. The water being treated has a TDS level of 4,000 -. 7,000mg/L. The specified target hardness level in the treated stream is <1ppm. In actual service the ion. exchange softener is consistently producing water with a hardness level <0.5ppm. Some novel
  • Pharmaceutical Application for Water Activity (.pdf)
    Knowledge of the water activity of pharmaceutical solids (proteins, drugs, and excipients) is essential to obtain a solid dosage form with optimal chemical, physical, microbial and shelf-life properties. Water activity (aw) influences the chemical stability, microbial stability, flow properties
  • Novel ion-exchange system softens produced water for steam generation
    Alternating between weak and strong cation exchange, the produced-water treatment system reduced hardness to less than 1 mg/L without the use of hazardous acid and caustic for softener. regeneration, for Seneca Resources in California.
  • Residue
    deposits are likely to occur. Such deposits, called residue, can plate out on hard surfaces in direct contact with the circulating fluid. The presence of tramp oil, rust preventatives and insoluble soaps due to water hardness or dissolved metals (such as iron or aluminum) lead to this type of residue
  • Ion Exchange Filtration
    Ion exchange is used in two distinct filtration processes. The first is water softening. In this process, ions are removed from the water and replacing them with sodium ions and chloride ions. Ion exchange water softening is most commonly used in residential applications, to reduce the hardness
  • Pharmaceutical/Personal Care Product Manufacturer Promotes Quality Standards
    . shell life. Fist the source water for the manufocludng plant comes from a municipal water supply. The influent. water has hardness (Calcium and Magnesium h&dness) of approximately 6to 8 grains per gallon. The municipal supdy Is also chlodnated. The company needed nsdli megoohrncm quality water
  • Improving Control of the Extrusion Spheronization Process
    . The physical properties of two types of commercial MCC showed differences during the step of moistening, thereby affecting the particle size and hardness of the pellets obtained The most commonly used granulating liquid is water, although in some cases the use of alcohol or a water-alcohol mixture

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