Description     Density and specific gravity instruments are meters used to determine the density and specific gravity of a mixture that may be solid, gas, or liquid. Specific gravity is the heaviness of a substance compared to that of water, and it is expressed without units. In the metric system specific gravity is the same as in the English system. If something is 7.85 times as heavy as an equal volume of water (such as iron is) its specific gravity is 7.85. Its density is 7.85...
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Q & A on Density and Specific Gravity Instruments

We asked our users for their input on Density and Specific Gravity Instruments. Here are the results of 88 users familiar with Density and Specific Gravity Instruments.

Who Took Our Poll? | Design Trends | Applications and Use | Features | Buying Advice |

Who Took Our Poll?Top

Design TrendsTop

Q:
What new technologies are influencing density and specific gravity instrument design?
10 answers
Answers:
1. Basing on Archimedes principle: weight / loss of weight. 2. Liquid medias with gradual increasing range of densities so that the gemstone sample neither sinks nor floats, indicating its density
~Technical Support/Services, Hyderabad, India
Material science, micromechanics, microrobotics, electronical engineering, computer/automation technologies, software progress/improvement, nanotechnologies
~Vladimir H., Research & Development, Prague, Czech Republic
Some flowmeters have as second measure of the air inside of the pipe. It helps to compensate for the bubbles.
~Carlos C, Engineer, Santiago, Chile
On line density measurement with provision of orifice. Conversion of pressure to density.
~Sunil Garg, Operations group , handling petroleum produt storage and distribution., Mumbai, India
Improvement in Micromotion technology. Ultrasonic & Nucleonic technologies.
~Arvind Dhir, Engineering, Consulting, Sydney, Australia
More portable or hand held for fast field measurement of s.g. or density.
~Technical Support/Services, Harare, Zimbabwe
Automatic filling check feature is very helpful in density measurement.
~Weene Villaver, Technical Support, Quezon City, Philippines
Low radiation nuclear sources, ultrasonic
~Ramesh K n, Engineer, Ahmedabad,Gujarat, India
Microfluidics, Coriolis
~Albert M., Chief Technology Officer, Amsterdam, Netherlands
By UV rays
~Purchasing, Kolkata, India

Q:
From your perspective, which companies are creating the most innovative density and specific gravity instruments?
13 answers
Answers:
After some former experience/practice and references we use the Mettler-Toledo Instruments. This company organizes not only sale presentations but also good introductory training, workshops and education courses. Their personnel corresponds with customers if there some practical or theoretical needs arise.
~Vladimir H., Research & Development, Prague, Czech Republic
The following are among the good companies providing the density / S.G Instruments: SARASOTA, Emerson - Micromotion, Yokogawa - Gas / Liquid density Analyzers
~Arvind Dhir, Engineering, Consulting, Sydney, Australia
Anton Paar Austria, Bronkhorst Netherlands
~Albert M., Chief Technology Officer, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Sheen Instruments, Mettler Toledo
~Technical Support/Services, Harare, Zimbabwe
I am an Anton Paar fan
~Lee B, Chemist/toxicologist/Laboratory Consultant, Tampa, FL
Thermo, Anton Paar
~Ramesh K n, Engineer, Ahmedabad,Gujarat, India
Almost all
~Harish C, Production Engineer, Ajman, Uae
Ohmart-Vega
~Carlos C, Engineer, Santiago, Chile
Anton-Parr
~Robert C, Faculty/Staff, Knoxville, TN
Anton Paar
~Weene Villaver, Technical Support, Quezon City, Philippines
Honeywell
~Purchasing, Kolkata, India
Emerson
~Sunil Garg, Operations group , handling petroleum produt storage and distribution., Mumbai, India
Mettler
~Russ V, Material Development Manager, Bristol, NH

Applications and UseTop

Q:
What are some of the applications you have used density and specific gravity instruments for?
20 answers
Answers:
Transfer of product to customers' Quality Assurance, Specs of the products, Interface cutting, Conversion of product to 15 degree, Refueling of Aircraft, mentioning of the density for each delivery.
~Sunil Garg, Operations group , handling petroleum produt storage and distribution., Mumbai, India
Mostly for specific gravity of rubber and rubber like materials. Also some fluids, i.e. sugar content, or gravity as a means of determining an unknown.
~Russ V, Material Development Manager, Bristol, NH
For testing of petroleum and chemical products - for purposes of establishing quality and in use for quantity measurements.
~Other, DURBAN, South Africa
Fuel Gas applications. Custody transfer metering applications. Optimization of Process control applications.
~Arvind Dhir, Engineering, Consulting, Sydney, Australia
We use it for measurement of proppant bulk density during hydraulic fracturing of oil wells.
~Ramesh K n, Engineer, Ahmedabad,Gujarat, India
Mainly in Briz application for water-based solutions in the food industry.
~Lee B, Chemist/toxicologist/Laboratory Consultant, Tampa, FL
Preparing battery grade sulfuric acid testing SG of battery electrolite.
~Daniel T, General Management, Lima, Peru
Scientific interpretation of density data based on thermodynamics.
~Research & Development, Lisboa, Portugal
Checking specific gravity for some acrylic products in my lab.
~Harish C, Production Engineer, Ajman, Uae
Measurement of excess densities of chiral molecule mixtures.
~Robert C, Faculty/Staff, Knoxville, TN
For copper concentrate, molybdenum slurry. Measure on pipe.
~Carlos C, Engineer, Santiago, Chile
Measurement of samples, also in accredited laboratory.
~Vladimir H., Research & Development, Prague, Czech Republic
Determine hydrogen content in cast aluminum.
~Quality Control/Assurance, Woodville, WI
To measure specific gravity of pulp gold ore.
~Technical Support/Services, Harare, Zimbabwe
Natural gas, fuel gas, hydrocarbon liquids
~Albert M., Chief Technology Officer, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Beverages, petroleum products, chemicals
~Weene Villaver, Technical Support, Quezon City, Philippines
Density/sp.gravity of rocks & gemstones
~Technical Support/Services, Hyderabad, India
Density of rocks insitu and rock powders.
~Technical Support/Services, Cape Town, South Africa
Density analysis for mineral separation
~Research & Development, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Checking methanol, phenol etc
~Purchasing, Kolkata, India

Q:
Please share with us any “non-standard” applications that density and specific gravity instruments have been used for.
10 answers
Answers:
Various industries use these instruments for safety layers as well: (1) In case of Fom formation and risk of overflow to the compressors from the column. The density instruments are used to generate the High - High alarms or trip the system. (2) Manual draining of the systems on the basis of density indication. (3) Batch Transfers.
~Arvind Dhir, Engineering, Consulting, Sydney, Australia
Part sorting. At one point in my career, manufacturing mixed two rubber parts with the same dimensions, but different specific gravities. We designed and built a machine that would allow one compound to float and the other sink so that we could rapidly sort and separate the mixed product.
~Russ V, Material Development Manager, Bristol, NH
What we use is nonstandard measurement of density as the nuclear density meter is the only known instrument which can measure density of a slurry, which is highly viscous, abrasive and contains a lot of chemicals and is quite precise and lasts long.
~Ramesh K n, Engineer, Ahmedabad,Gujarat, India
Monitoring of material degradation after their operational/artificial aging, especially plastics (some types of sealings, cable insulation materials, etc.) to make the residual lifetime assessment.
~Vladimir H., Research & Development, Prague, Czech Republic
Flare gas applications for Rule 1118 compliance. High temperature and high sulphur.
~Albert M., Chief Technology Officer, Amsterdam, Netherlands
I've used them as characterization of terpen blends...............
~Lee B, Chemist/toxicologist/Laboratory Consultant, Tampa, FL
When we measure on an open weir for waste water application.
~Carlos C, Engineer, Santiago, Chile
Excess volumes for chiral molecules in liquids.
~Robert C, Faculty/Staff, Knoxville, TN
Cleaning solutions for integrated circuits
~Weene Villaver, Technical Support, Quezon City, Philippines
Formaldehyde
~Purchasing, Kolkata, India

Q:
Do you know of any disastrous mistakes that occurred due to the incorrect usage of density and specific gravity instruments?
6 answers
Answers:
Sometimes SG/density is used as an inferred sensor for HEating VAlue of fuel gases. This is possible but only if NO inert components like CO2, N2 and H2O are present. Otherwise a calorimeter or Wobbe Index meter must be used.
~Albert M., Chief Technology Officer, Amsterdam, Netherlands
The most common is the floats which are designed and work on the fixed density / S.G of the products. It is basically a design issue as the instruemnts are not selected for all process conditions.
~Arvind Dhir, Engineering, Consulting, Sydney, Australia
Yes, build up inside of pipe and material cork. the process of material transportation will stop and the production same.
~Carlos C, Engineer, Santiago, Chile
No. but i feel it will cost lot of money if your density measurement is wrong in custody transfer.
~Ramesh K n, Engineer, Ahmedabad,Gujarat, India
No disastrous ones ---- but a few expensive ones.
~Lee B, Chemist/toxicologist/Laboratory Consultant, Tampa, FL
Ignoring influence of bubbles and contaminants
~Weene Villaver, Technical Support, Quezon City, Philippines

FeaturesTop

Q:
What would your design or feature "wish list" be for this product?
13 answers
Answers:
(1) Accuracy better than 0.001% of the instrument range. (2) Repeatability better than 0.001%. (3) Complete self diagnostics. (4) Inbuilt Pressure and Temperature measurement capability. (5) Minimum three outputs. (6) Inbuilt conversion tables built to ASTM standards for various products. (7) IEC Ex certificate so that it can be used worldwide. (8) Vendor supplied heating design if required.
~Arvind Dhir, Engineering, Consulting, Sydney, Australia
Portable with temperature compensation (Peltier junction design with feedback) and multi-event storage that can be displayed in several formats (Stanfor-Levey charts would be especially useful in six sigma) and Bluetooth integration within the lab plant allowing results to be viewed by manufacturing as soon as they are run.
~Lee B, Chemist/toxicologist/Laboratory Consultant, Tampa, FL
Can be easily calibrated. For example, if I block the beam with a calibrated shutter, it should show a repeated reading to ascertain the truthfulness of the reading.
~Ramesh K n, Engineer, Ahmedabad,Gujarat, India
Improved ability to handle oddly shaped articles.
~Russ V, Material Development Manager, Bristol, NH
Accuracy up to 4 figures without physical sampling.
~Sunil Garg, Operations group , handling petroleum produt storage and distribution., Mumbai, India
Portable density meter but with higher accuracy.
~Weene Villaver, Technical Support, Quezon City, Philippines
Low cost, ATEX and IECEX certified, small.
~Albert M., Chief Technology Officer, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Include pressure as a variable.
~Robert C, Faculty/Staff, Knoxville, TN
Cheap but accurate instruments.
~Technical Support/Services, Hyderabad, India
Cheap, portable or hand held.
~Technical Support/Services, Harare, Zimbabwe
Density gradient column
~Vladimir H., Research & Development, Prague, Czech Republic
Compact and versatile
~Carlos C, Engineer, Santiago, Chile
Pocket type
~Purchasing, Kolkata, India

Buying AdviceTop

Q:
Do you have any advice for people relative to buying or using density and specific gravity instruments?
8 answers
Answers:
One main thing - for devices used by non-laboratory staff, calibration and setup lockouts should be available on the instrument and in place at all times.
~Lee B, Chemist/toxicologist/Laboratory Consultant, Tampa, FL
Instrument shall be selected and designed to the specific process conditions. All the instruments have benefits and drawbacks over each other.
~Arvind Dhir, Engineering, Consulting, Sydney, Australia
Follow the positive references and avoid the suspiciously cheap companies or the companies having negative references.
~Vladimir H., Research & Development, Prague, Czech Republic
Look at the scope of your needs and be sure that the instrument will accomplish even the odd tasks.
~Russ V, Material Development Manager, Bristol, NH
Go for density and gravity instruments with high quality. Don't compromise quality with the price.
~Weene Villaver, Technical Support, Quezon City, Philippines
Get a clear view on what is "must have" and "nice to have".
~Albert M., Chief Technology Officer, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Select as per your need and maintenance costs.
~Ramesh K n, Engineer, Ahmedabad,Gujarat, India
It has to be long lasting and accurate.
~Sunil Garg, Operations group , handling petroleum produt storage and distribution., Mumbai, India

Q:
Is there any advice you want to share with users to help them avoid common errors in selection or usage of density and specific gravity instruments?
8 answers
Answers:
As trade practices I will not point out the instrument but some density instruments are not suitable for corrosive and severe applications and do not comply with API MPMS standard requirements.
~Arvind Dhir, Engineering, Consulting, Sydney, Australia
Be aware of the difference between density, line density and specific gravity. For SG measurement on gases an absolute pressure input is often required.
~Albert M., Chief Technology Officer, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Consider viscosity of sample during filling. Many are fascinated with the additional peristaltic pump which can't handle viscous samples well.
~Weene Villaver, Technical Support, Quezon City, Philippines
Despite that the results of measurement are saved in the balances' memory, write all important and other data also in paper form (lab-log).
~Vladimir H., Research & Development, Prague, Czech Republic
Physical measurement is the best. Type and quality of the hydrometer and thermometer is very critical.
~Sunil Garg, Operations group , handling petroleum produt storage and distribution., Mumbai, India
Specify the temperature range and type of outputs you need.
~Ramesh K n, Engineer, Ahmedabad,Gujarat, India
See Above - most errors are analyst errors.
~Lee B, Chemist/toxicologist/Laboratory Consultant, Tampa, FL
When they need to change the nuclear densimeter to another pipe with different features, as thickness, liner, diameter and SGU. The Source activity could change so much.
~Carlos C, Engineer, Santiago, Chile


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