GlobalSpec has asked its users about the latest design trends and features related to Heat Exchangers. They have also shared their product applications and tips on how to buy and use these products.
See the entire survey


Q:
What would your design or feature "wish list" be for this product?
89 answers
Answers:

My ultimate "wish list" as a design engineer would be to have access to the design programs for all of the new and innovative products in the industry. Often the new technologies are "black box", as we request the designs from the proprietary manufacturer, we are not given access to how those designs are rated. When it comes down to comparing competitive manufacture designs, say for welded plate exchangers, we as the engineering company have to take the vendor's word for if the exchanger will perform as designed. The most innovative technologies require a leap of faith in respect to both the engineering company and ultimately the client who is purchasing the technology

~GlobalSpec Registered User

1. For air compressor inter stage and after coolers the auto condensate drain system should work perfectly. My experience is very discouraging on this aspect. 2. Tube bundle should be easy to handle with special arrangements if needed. 3. Special coating for water boxes for corrosion prevention.

~GlobalSpec Registered User

A)Product which can take care of external impurities in the cooling medium. b)Unit which can be easily serviceable. In fact this is one of the important points on which the selection lies. The shell and tube configuration scores over plate heat exchanger in spite of compactness and efficiency of PHE

~GlobalSpec Registered User

Thermal design, mechanical calculation for shell & tube heat exchanger, pressure vessel & columns, expertise in designing of typical type of exchanger for highly corrosion & chemical resistant material (tantalum, titanium, zirconium, niobium etc.)

~GlobalSpec Registered User

Heat exchangers are very vital in any oil and gas down stream business. To this extent, we need to avoid rogue materials that would lead to failures. This means that we need hex designed with the best materials that can guarantee reliability.

~GlobalSpec Registered User

Clean water, my applicable heating element could easily do this with small solar application with rechargeable batteries for 24/7 use. Heating air same and easier with even lower energy consumption but clean water is badly needed.

~GlobalSpec Registered User

Needs to be easily maintainable. Support for the chemistry side of things is also important. Small footprint is desirable. Gaging should be easy access and easy to read. Back-up systems are essential.

~GlobalSpec Registered User
Accommodation of differential thermal expansion by innovative and traditional designs. Elimination of erosion/corrosion in tube entry regions of condensers.
~GlobalSpec Registered User

1. A good visible heat exchanger for the research purpose 2. A new design of heat exchanger controlled digitally so we can study and know every thing inside.

~GlobalSpec Registered User

1. Brazed titanium HX for refrigerant application. 2. Brazed high corrosive resistant stainless steel HX for use with refrigerant against LiCl solution.

~GlobalSpec Registered User

Advanced materials, with good thermal and corrosion performance. Internal flow designs to minimise pressure loss, while maintaining thermal performance

~GlobalSpec Registered User
Ease of cleaning and maintenance for S&T exchangers, "quick-pull" ends, special on-line shell drainage for fouling fluids (esp. slurry-type sediments)
~GlobalSpec Registered User
1. Thermal efficiency 2. Non-hazardous and non-toxic heat transfer fluids and heat exchangers 3. Complete energy conversion from exhaust gases
~GlobalSpec Registered User
To show a heat transfer curve for varying flow rates. Also the pressure drop through the HX in (FT.HD.) would need to be adjusted as well.
~GlobalSpec Registered User

Industry standards for interchangeable units (capacity, size, inputs); new materials for lighter and more efficient exchangers; lower cost;

~GlobalSpec Registered User
Reduction of water consumption using air coolers and more efficient and effective use of Adiabatic systems for below ambient conditions.
~GlobalSpec Registered User

More consistent use of metals to do away with anodes. Too many systems have bronze stainless 316 , 2205 steel and various other metals

~GlobalSpec Registered User

Heat Exchangers for super critical service of pressure and temperatures as encounters in super critical thermal power plants.

~GlobalSpec Registered User

Easy dis-assembly, re-assembly for plate and frame HX's. Use of enhanced surfaces for inner tubes of fin-tube style HX's.

~GlobalSpec Registered User
Less size with more efficiency, which means less running costs for our steam production. No cross contamination
~GlobalSpec Registered User

Manufacturers listed by capacity (small, medium, big ones) materials of construction (c.s., s.s., alloys)

~GlobalSpec Registered User
- Efficient - Easy for maintenace - Modular (expanded, that it can grow) - Short time for spare parts
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Single stage heat recovery for hot flue gas that could use the heat in remote locations.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Generally, I have to make recommendations on the system of work with the heat exchanger.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Highest heat recovery degree - thermally longest solutions with smallest pressure drops
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Compact with high cooling features. Being able to recycle hot liquid or air for reuse.
~GlobalSpec Registered User

Rugged and versatile, Ease of Maintenance, Cost of Exchanger, Overall Heat Integration

~GlobalSpec Registered User
Stainless Steel material 304 Sq. surface requirements along with gasketed plates
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Built in flushing and testing ports the production can perform before a new campaign.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
-compactness -large cross -flow area -short flow path -flexible connection sizes
~GlobalSpec Registered User
A plastic flat plate heat exchanger for gas-gas and liquid-liquid (counterflow).
~GlobalSpec Registered User
1. High efficiency 2. Low cost 3. High durability 4. Ease of maintenance
~GlobalSpec Registered User
High cooling capacity Low pressure drop LP protection IP56 Compact size
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Self venting without leakage, secondary "tell tale" containment for leakage
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Reducing heat exchangers in size with integated backflow cleaning system.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Better and easier to interpret flow charts, better pump sizing charts.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Better prices Better corrosion resistance Better performance Safety
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Made available with small automotive (i.e. #4) pilot o-ring fittings.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Easily cleanable/flushable, recirc pumps to increase heat transfer.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Maximum transfer of heat by conduction, convection and radiation.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
1- Reliability 2- High thermal performance 3- Safety 4- Price
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Self cleaning or ease of cleaning. Easy capacity adjustments.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Easier calculations about heat exchange rates, capacities etc.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Ease of maintenance, longer life between maintenance cycles.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Safe inspection, chemical compatibility with liquid metal.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
High Capacity High Efficiency High Corrosion Resistance
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To use solar energy instead of conventional fuel oils.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
More versatile applications especially Solar Hydronic.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
That could be used for high temperature and pressure.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
The highest efficiency with the lesser pressure drop.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
More capacity and or staging with weight reductions.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Minimum corrosion with maximum heat transfer rate.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Smaller footprint size and lighter rooftop units.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
A combined kidney loop pump and air/oil cooler.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Ambient temperature Approcoach Cooling pad
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Robust like a S&THE good as a Plate Fin BAHE.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Light, cheap and very reliable heat exchanger.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Avaible parts for twisted titanium coils.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Low power consumption and heat insulation.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Combine A/C and Heat pumper as one unit.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Cost efficient and quality of product.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Better able to handle "dirty" service.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
HVAC applications are pretty standard.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
HIgh runtimes; less fouling; easy cip.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
800-100 degrees C. 5-10 MPa pressure
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Better performance in smaller units.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Most cheap save of wave energy ever.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Graphs with exchange of temperatures.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
High efficiency , low maintenance.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Light weight high temp material.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Ease of use and ease of cleaning.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
- LOWER PRICES - HIGHER QUALITY
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Durability and serviceability.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
More materials for the shell.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Heat conduction, resistance.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Very compact and economical.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
More compact, less material.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Shorter copper tubing.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Size and efficiency.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Plate heat exchange.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Sanitary standards.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
TEMA CLASS R , C
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Self cleaning :o)
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Evaporator plate.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Maintenance free.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
100% efficiency
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Small and light
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Compact size
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Top outlets
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Q:
Is there any advice you want to share with users to help them avoid common errors in selection or usage of a heat exchanger?
61 answers
Answers:

Be sure that you include provisions for adequate instrumentation...Pressure gauges, thermometers, and flow meters. Also include provisions for Clean In Place so that the heat exchanger can be cleaned early in the fouling stages. Do not specify "clip on" style gaskets unless it is an application that requires frequent changing of the gaskets. In typical non corrosive applications, glued on style are much more user friendly when opening to service the equipment.

~GlobalSpec Registered User

Look at the exchanger with the entire system in mind. If you only design the exchanger from the required duty, flow rate, allowable pressure drop, you might miss an opportunity to possibly reduce the amount of exchangers required for your overall process. Sometimes if you can have a higher allowable pressure drop, you can make the design more efficient with higher shellside/tubeside velocities which also can discourage fouling.

~GlobalSpec Registered User
If not an expert, use sizing programs available from company websites. Get quotes from various suppliers & compare...watch your specs, the cheapest supplier may cut corners in a way that hurts you later. Use consulting services to help you evaluate competing bids. An independent expert's opinion will help save you a lot of money over time.
~GlobalSpec Registered User

Highest flow your budget allows - up to 10% higher than what you think you need. So you don't have to do a Scotti and say, "She's giving it all she's got captain!"

~GlobalSpec Registered User

Verify systems design carefully avoiding water hammering which is destroying piping, valves and equipment, including heat exchangers. The VFD motor driven pumps and throttle valves shall be used preventing water hammering.

~GlobalSpec Registered User

Ensure that differential thermal expansion can be accommodated without exceeding the stress concentrated fatigue limit. Do not ignore condensation film coefficient. It can add a surprising resistance to heat transfer.

~GlobalSpec Registered User

Avoid cycling too much the temperature inside a flat plate heat exchanger (leaks occur in few years). In this case, it would be better to use a Shell & Tubes, whatever the flat plate heat exchanger suppliers say.

~GlobalSpec Registered User

Hexs may fail in service if wrong choice was made on day one. Ensure that process parameters are observed from time to time. Carry out regular maintenance inspection in keeping with statutory requirement.

~GlobalSpec Registered User

What type <-> what application. First issue is to decide heat exchanger type. Most likely the best solution comes from company who has several types and are not "binded" for certain type...

~GlobalSpec Registered User
Aluminum microchannel HE's are the way to go. They tend to perform better and cost less than any copper or flat/folded tube types and are more durable (as proven in 30 yrs of automotive use).
~GlobalSpec Registered User

When replacing "like for like" ensure that this is really what you're doing - even relatively (seemingly) small changes can make an effect especially in thermosyphon reboilers.

~GlobalSpec Registered User

Do not use heat exchangers as band aids. An engineered solution making the system more efficient will often eliminate the need for or reduce the size of the heat exchanger.

~GlobalSpec Registered User

Get one that is sized for worst case scenarios. You do not want an exchanger that is too small when the worst of weather conditions effect your building systems.

~GlobalSpec Registered User
Yes. Please consider installers and service opinion and requirements. This is very important for the popular diffusion and spread of a design success....
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Remember that BAHE are not made in Steel, so they are incredibly weak spot in high pressure process plant, LNG recovery & fractionation.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Mixing 2205 or 2507 stainless with higher temperatures and a zinc anode will quickly lead to hydrogen embrittlement of the stainless.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Materials are key, especially on the soft goods, make sure you buy quality units from one of the big three APV, Tranter, Alfa Laval
~GlobalSpec Registered User
For finned tubes always ask for a thermal check, especially if they are purchased from unknown/new manufacturers (e.g. China).
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Fully understand the metallurgy of the exchanger and corrosive properties of the material you are to cool to ensure they match.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Check other type of heat exchangers that will give you the best performance regarding its uses in your plant or business.
~GlobalSpec Registered User

1. Use close control temperature sensors. 2. Always use differential pressure sensors across PHE. 3. Use good strainers.

~GlobalSpec Registered User

Use Qualified Service personnel that are used to doing work on them - Each type and manufacturer has their little quirks.

~GlobalSpec Registered User

If using a heat exchanger to cool liquids below freezing, be sure to install freeze up protection, and flow valve safeties.

~GlobalSpec Registered User

Many manufacturers do not give data sheets at bidding stage; they give just a brief description, problems come later...

~GlobalSpec Registered User
Make sure product side pressure is higher than the heating medium so that there is no contamination of the good product side.
~GlobalSpec Registered User

1. Back flooding of Reboilers. 2. Vibration in U-Bends. 3. Tube end erosion due to excessive rho v sq.

~GlobalSpec Registered User

Keep good relation with technicians in the field who offer advice, as the "old guys" are a valuable resource.

~GlobalSpec Registered User
Install with strainers. Htxs will clog over a period of time. Strainers are easy to pull and clean.
~GlobalSpec Registered User

Make sure to consider all the components on a fluid to select the correct construction materials.

~GlobalSpec Registered User

Make sure there is advanced computer analysis of a proposal to back up your selection.

~GlobalSpec Registered User

Avoid pumping loss due to inefficient flow path. Select corrosion resistant materials.

~GlobalSpec Registered User
Pay attention to fluid type and with plate and frames use a good strainer or filter.
~GlobalSpec Registered User

Double check performance by obtaining several quotes. Beware of underperformance.

~GlobalSpec Registered User
Water flow rate required temperature drop pressure drop at condenser outlet.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
When pulling apart a plate and frame heat exchanger, mark the plates in order.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Have some good draining ports and use the best grade of steel you can find.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Plate and tubular heat exchanger using the get forced to use filters.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Contact an application engineer to make sure you get sizing correct.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Try to select heat exchanger which has less chance of damage.
~GlobalSpec Registered User

Pay attention on operation temperatures, flow and pressure.

~GlobalSpec Registered User
Check waterside flow and partial and minimal cooling loads.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Most problems come if you don´t clean very well your HE´s.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Always check the heat profile before sending the machine.
~GlobalSpec Registered User

Not change the design parameter to the moment to use it.

~GlobalSpec Registered User
Contact an application engineer or use a sizing program.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Size your capacity carefully and allow for redundancy.
~GlobalSpec Registered User

Before selecting, take advice from HVAC consultant.

~GlobalSpec Registered User
Build a matrix and compare, compare and compare.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Usual headaches power and usual problems related.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Good information. Ask the practical experts.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Ensure safety valves are in working condition.
~GlobalSpec Registered User

Proper maintenance for your heat exchanger.

~GlobalSpec Registered User
Think twice, do not buy a cheap exchange.
~GlobalSpec Registered User

Be careful with dust and filter using.

~GlobalSpec Registered User

Speak with reliable manufacturers.

~GlobalSpec Registered User
Parameter limits to be checked.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Know limitations of the HX.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
First calculate, then buy.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Oversize your exchanger.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Too much pumping power.
~GlobalSpec Registered User
Pretest before install.
~GlobalSpec Registered User

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