Static random access memory (SRAM) chips are dual-transistor memory cells that require a constant supply of power in order to retain their content. Common applications for SRAM memory chips include system caches and video memory.
Each SRAM bit is a flip-flop circuit made of cross-coupled inverters. The activation of transistors controls the flow of current from one side to the other. The transistors are connected so that one only transistor is in or out at any time.
When power is received, all SRAM cells are in a logical state of 1 (ON). Subsequent data writing changes some of the cells to a logical stage of 0 (OFF). This state is maintained until the next write operation, or when power is removed.
Because they use multiple transistors, SRAM memory chips are more expensive and require more power than DRAM memory chips; however, because they do not need to be constantly refreshed, SRAM memory chips are faster and more reliable.
Density is the capacity of the chip in bits.
The number of words equals the number of rows, each of which stores a memory word and connects to a word line for addressing purposes.
The bits per word are the number of columns, each of which connects to a sense/write circuit.
Supply voltages range from - 5 V to 5 V and include many intermediate voltages.
Measured in nanoseconds (ns), access time indicates the speed of memory and represents a cycle that begins when the central processing unit (CPU) sends a request to memory and ends when the CPU receives the data requested.
Cycle time is the time required to both perform a single read or write operation and reset the internal circuitry so another operation can begin.
Data retention voltage and data retention current are, respectively, the minimum voltage and minimum current that SRAM memory cells must maintain in order to preserve stored data.
Measured in hertz (Hz), data rate is the number of bits per second that can be moved internally.
Transistor-transistor logic (TTL) and related technologies such as Fairchild advanced Schottky TTL (FAST) use transistors as digital switches. By contrast, emitter coupled logic (ECL) uses transistors to steer current through gates that compute logical functions.
Another logic family, complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) uses a combination of p-type and n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFET) to implement logic gates and other digital circuits.
Logic families for SRAM memory chips include:
Cross-bar switch technology (CBT)
Gallium arsenide (GaAs)
Integrated injection logic (I2L)
Silicon on sapphire (SOS)
Gunning with transceiver logic (GTL)
Gunning with transceiver logic plus (GTLP)
IC Package Types
SRAM memory chips are available in a variety of IC package types and with different numbers of pins. Basic IC package types for SRAM memory chips include:
Ball grid array (BGA) - Variants include plastic-ball grid array (PBGA) and tape-ball grid array (TBGA).
Quad flat package (QFP) - Variants include low-profile quad flat package (LQFP) and thin quad flat package (TQFP).
Dual in-line package (DIP) - Variants include ceramic (CDIP) and plastic (PDIP).
Single in-line package (SIP)
- Small outline package (SOP)
Thin small outline package (TSOP)
Shrink small outline package (SSOP)
MIL-M-38510/245 - MICROCIRCUITS, DIGITAL, CMOS, 4096 BIT, STATIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (SRAM), BULK SILICON AND SILICON ON SAPPHIRE
MIL-M-38510/292 - MICROCIRCUITS, DIGITAL, CMOS, 65,536-BIT STATIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (SRAM) MONOLITHIC SILICON
Related Products & Services
DRAM and SDRAM Memory Chips
Dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chips are single-transistor memory cells that use small capacitors to store each bit of memory in an addressable format that consists of rows and columns. Because capacitors are unable to hold a charge indefinitely, DRAM memory chips require a near-constant pulse of current to retain stored information.
Electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) chips are similar to PROM devices, but require only electricity to be erased.
Erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM) chips are programmable, reusable computer chips that can be erased using ultraviolet light and reprogrammed with a PROM programmer or PROM burner.
First-in, first-out (FIFO) memory chips are used in buffering applications between devices that operate at different speeds or in applications where data must be stored temporarily for further processing.
FLASH Memory Chips
FLASH memory chips offer extremely fast access times, low power consumption, and relative immunity to severe shock or vibration. They do not need a constant power supply to retain their data.
Memory chips are internal storage areas in computers. Although the term "memory chip" commonly refers to a computer's random access memory (RAM), this product area includes many different types of electronic data storage. Computer memory stores data electronically in cells. Without memory chips, a computer could not read programs or retain data.
Static random access memory (SRAM) modules are a collection of SRAM chips assembled on a circuit board.