Wastewater pumps are used in the collection of sewage, effluent, drainage and seepage water in locations such as homes, farms, light commercial buildings and industrial areas. Many wastewater pumps use centrifugal force or positive displacement to move fluids. Centrifugal pumps apply centrifugal force to generate velocity, use rotating impellers to increase velocity, and push fluids through an outlet valve. Positive displacement pumps use rollers, gears, or impellers to move fluid into a fixed cavity so that when liquid exists, the vacuum that is created draws in more fluid. Diaphragm pumps, the most commonly used type of positive displacement pump, include a diaphragm and chamber, as well as suction and discharge check valves to prevent backflow.
A variety of specialized wastewater pumps are available. Agitator pumps deliver kinetic energy to slurry solids surrounding the pump intake, re-suspending them in a fluid state. Cantilever pumps protect the motor and seals from the pumped media while circulation pumps are designed to keep media circulating throughout the distribution or process system. Dosing pumps are low-volume fluid pumps with controllable discharge rates that are used to inject chemical additives into mixing or pumping systems. Fountain pumps supply flow to fountains, grinder pumps shred solids, macerator pumps empty holding tanks of sewage, and mixing pumps work with drums, tanks, or other containers. Progressive cavity pumps use pipelines or storage tanks to transfer fluid or media with suspended solids or slurries from the suction side of the pump to the discharge side of the pump. Other types of wastewater pumps include lift stations, mixed flow pumps, sampling pumps, sump pumps, submersible pumps, trash pumps, and utility pumps.
Wastewater pumps are available with a variety of features. Adjustable speed pumps can operate at speeds selected by an operator while continuous duty pumps maintain performance specifications at 100% duty cycle. Run dry capable pumps can operate without pumped fluid or external lubrication for an extended period of time. Some wastewater pumps include a grinding mechanism, pressure gage, control panel, level control device, or thermal overload protection. Other wastewater pumps are explosion-proof, self-priming, portable, or are configured to pump sticky or stringy materials. Wastewater pumps can move media either vertically or horizontally, depending on the direction of the pump stator/rotar assembly.
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Important specifications for wastewater pumps include maximum discharge flow, maximum discharge pressure, inlet size, discharge size, and horsepower. Power sources include alternating current (AC), direct current (DC), compressed air, gasoline, diesel fuel, hydraulic systems, natural gas, steam, water, and solar energy. Pumps that do not include a power source typically provide a drive shaft for connection to a motor. Manually powered pumps rely upon hand or foot power
Wastewater pumps are used in a variety of industrial, commercial, military, and maritime applications. Examples include agriculture and horticulture, aerospace and defense, construction, food processing, hydrocarbon and petrochemical, power generation, pulp and paper, and semiconductor applications.
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Dosing pumps are low-volume fluid pumps with controllable discharge rates used to inject additives into the mixing or pumping system.
Gear pumps use intermeshing gears to pump various types of liquids. Typically, one gear is the driver and the other is free wheeling. The gears have very tight tolerances so that the fluid being pumped cannot pass through them. Common uses for gear pumps include high pressure, metering, and flow control applications.
Magnetic Drive Pumps
Magnetic drive pumps are sealless pumps that use a coaxial magnetic coupling to transmit torque to an impeller. A standard electric motor drives a set of permanent magnets that are mounted on a carrier or drive assembly.
Plastic pumps are designed to move fluids that would corrode or damage other types of pumps. They provide broad chemical resistance and are less costly and lighter in weight than metal pumps.
Positive Displacement Pumps
Positive displacement pumps use a mechanical force such as gears, bladders, pistons, plungers or diaphragms to push liquid through and out of the pump.
Sanitary pumps are used to transport and meter solutions, slurries, and colloids of food and agricultural materials in operations such as food processing that require cleanliness. There are four basic types of sanitary pumps: centrifugal, positive displacement, jet, and airlift.
Infusion or withdrawal syringe pumps provide high pressure and high accuracy for applications such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Used to deliver precise amounts of fluid at specific time intervals.