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Fluid transfer pump systems are used in processing, water purification and desalination, or liquid handling applications. Some products are used in heat transfer applications or fluid flow and heat transfer applications. Others are designed to transport a heat transfer fluid or coolant. A fluid transfer pump system is defined by the fluid transfer pump type, material of construction, media pumped, industries or applications served, pressure and flow levels, and physical orientation. Fluid transfer pump systems use two basic types of pumping action: dynamic and displacement. A dynamic or kinetic fluid transfer system imparts energy to the fluid, often by increasing its velocity to a level greater than that allowed by the fluid outlet port. By contrast, a displacement pump compresses a fluid by decreasing the volume of fluid in a special fluid transfer chamber. Many configurations of piston-cylinder combinations, diaphragm oscillation, and rotating members are used to achieve this compression in fluid transfer pump systems. Fluid transfer pump systems use many different types of fluid transfer pumps: axial, bladder, cantilever, centrifugal, circumferential piston, diaphragm, double diaphragm, dosing or metering, drum, gear, hand, jet, linear, lobed rotor, manual, peristaltic, piston or plunger, radial piston, rocking piston, rotary vane, regenerative blower, screw, scroll, syringe, and turbine. Important performance specifications to consider when selecting a fluid transfer pump system include maximum pressure, maximum temperature, and maximum power drive. The flow capacity for fluid transfer pump systems may be specified separately. Maximum pressure refers to the maximum level of air pressure generated at the fluid transfer pump outlet. Units are typically referenced to one atmosphere (as in psig or psi gauge). Maximum flow may not occur at maximum pressure. Depending on the fluid transfer pump style, maximum temperature can refer to either the maximum fluid temperature being pumped, or the upper limit of ambient conditions. The maximum drive power of fluid transfer pump systems is the rated power of motor or engine driving pump. Pumps used in heat transfer, fluid flow and heat transfer, or heat transfer fluid applications may have additional specifications.