Pigging systems and pigging products are used to inspect, clean, or service a portion of piping without stopping the process flow. There are many different types of products. Examples include mandrel pigs, foam pigs, solid-cast pigs, and spheres. Mandrel pigs consist of a cylindrical, metal shaft with two or more plastic cups or discs on each end. These pigging systems and components may include steel wire-brushes or optional check valve ramps, transmitter adapters, or bumper noses. Foam pigs are made of various grades of urethane foam and may include blades, hardened steel studs, or silicone carbide chips for scraping. Solid-cast pigs are made of hardened urethane and feature multiple discs along a plastic mandrel. Spheres are durable, rounded pigs that are made of inflatable, solid-cast urethane; solid-cast plastic with a foam core; or urethane foam. Like other pigging systems and components, they often include an integral wire-brush.
Pigging systems and pigging products include many different accessories. Examples include pig launchers, pig detectors, pig indicators, pig pingers, pig receivers and pig closures. Pig launchers are used to introduce a pig into a pipeline. They are usually made of carbon steel, stainless steel, fiberglass, or polyurethane. Pig detectors and pig indicators are used to detect the passage of a pig within a pipeline. Intrusive devices are permanently mounted with fittings. Non-intrusive devices are portable and attach to the pipe with a strap or fiberglass saddle. Pig trackers and pig pingers consist of a transmitter and receiver. Pig trackers are designed for land-based applications. Pig pingers are suitable for marine environments. Pig closures are ports that allow personnel to access launchers or receivers. Sizes range from 2 to 60 inches. Pressure ratings are set by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and range from ANSI 150 to ANSI 2500.
There are many applications for pigging systems and pigging products. Some products are designed to detect cracks, leaks, bends, or corrosion. Others are suitable for pipeline inspection, repair or cleaning. Smart pigs include integral sensors and are used for mapping, feasibility studies, defect assessment, unblocking, and decommissioning applications. Sanitary pigging systems and components are designed for food and beverage processing.