Instruments such as quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) monitors, ellipsometers, RHEED systems, imaging stations, CD-SEMs, ion mills, C-V systems specifically designed for wafer metrology or in-situ monitoring of thin film parameters during thin film or semiconductors wafer processing.  quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) instruments are used monitors or controlling thin film thickness and depostion rate thin films or electroplating systems.