Abrasive rolls and abrasive sheets consist of abrasive grains applied to a die cut square or rectangular surface with a backing made of cloth, fiber, film, paper, non-woven, or other backing.  The abrasive grains remove surface materials such as metal, ceramics, glass, plastics, and paint. Consequently, these materials are used in wet and dry grinding, sanding, cleaning, polishing, and surface preparation in a variety of industries, including metalworking, woodworking, ceramics, and semiconductors. The type of backing, abrasive grain, grit size, and mounting help determine the applications for abrasive sheets and rolls.

Types of Backing

There are several different types of backing. Cloth backing consists of a woven fabric such as cotton and is suited for aggressive applications such as abrasive planing. Fiber backing is denser than cloth and contains vulcanized or chemically treated cotton or cellulose fibers; however, fiber backing may curl under humid conditions. Film backing uses abrasive grains on plastic film, while foam and sponge backing uses abrasive grains bonded onto a foam layer, sponge, felt or other soft, resilient materials. Similarly, metal backing uses abrasive grains bonded onto a metal backing such as aluminum or brass. Other types of backing include paper, screen, non-woven, or combination materials. 

Types of Abrasive Grains

Abrasive rolls and abrasive sheets use several different types of abrasive grains. Aluminum oxide, the most common industrial mineral in use today, is used either individually or with other materials to form ceramic grains. Aluminum oxide is also combined with emery and crocus to produce abrasives suitable for finishing applications. Other types of abrasive grains include garnet, tungsten carbine, silicon carbide, and alumina-zirconia. Super-abrasive diamond pastes are useful in ferrous polishing or lapping applications where heat and reactivity are not a factor. Cubic boron nitride (CBN) is a superabrasive grain with hardness second to diamond and a cubic crystal structure. CBN provides superior grinding performance on carbon and alloy steel. 

 

Grit size measures the abrasive grains in a matrix or bonded to a surface. With abrasive discs, grit sizes are based on ANSI (U.S.), FEPA (European), JIS (Japanese), or Micron graded standards. 

Mounting and Special Features

Abrasive rolls and abrasive sheets differ in terms of mounting and special features. For example, hook and loop mounting attaches the abrasive using a hook and loop fabric whereas bore / center mounting uses a central hole for mandrel, arbor, spindle, or shaft mounting. Other types of mounting include quick change and PSA / adhesive. In terms of features, abrasive sheets, rolls, and hand pads may use an open coat or a closed coat. Lubricated abrasive products provide improved resistance to loading while anti-static products reduce or eliminate static charge. Abrasive sheets and rolls that use a grinding aid or solid lubricant enhance cutting performance on stainless steel, nickel alloys and titanium.


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