Grinding segments are bonded abrasive structures that can be assembled on a special form to create a large wheel for flat surface grinding . They can be fastened to a backing plate or holder using adhesives, fasteners or clamping devices. Surface grinding segments are often used to sharpen knives or blades, produce flat stock, or grind large mold surfaces. They are also used in abrasive machining, abrasive planing, automatic grinding, back grinding, and ball grinding applications. Products such as sharpening stones, bench stones, files and slips are suitable for deburring, dimensioning, sharpening, honing, and rubbing. Surface grinding segments for food processing applications use special lubricating oils that meet regulatory requirements.
Grinding segments use several different types of abrasive grains. Aluminum oxide, the most common industrial mineral in use today, is used either individually or with other materials to form ceramic grains. Aluminum oxide is also combined with emery and crocus to produce abrasives suitable for finishing applications. Other types of abrasive grains include garnet, tungsten carbine, silicon carbide, and alumina-zirconia. Super-abrasive diamond pastes are useful in ferrous polishing or lapping applications where heat and reactivity are not factors. Cubic boron nitride (CBN), a superabrasive grain with hardness second to diamond, has a cubic crystal structure and provides superior grinding performance on carbon and alloy steel.
Grinding segments vary in terms of grit size, a measurement of the abrasive grains in a matrix or bonded to a surface. Most grit sizes are based on ANSI (U.S.), FEPA (European), JIS (Japanese), or micron-graded standards. Typically, products such as bonded abrasives and grinding wheels use ANSI - Bonded and FEPA - F grit size standards. Common FEPA – F grit sizes for surface grinding segments include F12, F14, F16, F20, F24, F30, F36, F40, F46, F54, F60, F70, F80, F90, and F100. Coated abrasives, grinding belts, and sanding discs use ANSI - CAMI and FEPA - P standards. Coarse grains, or grits, are used to remove large amounts of material, while medium grains are used to remove intermediate amounts. Fine grits are used in finishing and deburring applications, while very fine grits are suitable for surface grinding segments used in deburring applications.
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Sharpening stones are used for sharpening edges and honing internal or external surfaces. They are generally stones or bonded abrasive product with a rectangular block or shaped stick configuration.