Noise standards are used to calibrate other noise instruments. There are many types of noise calibration devices. Examples include noise sources such as noise diodes and noise modules. Noise diodes are semiconductor devices that can be used for noise calibration, testing, and analyzing systems. Noise diodes require a noise biasing structure and a DC power supply for generating a noise signal. Noise modules employ built-in noise diode circuitry and are customized for noise figure measurement. Other noise standards are commonly available.
There are several ways in which noise standards function. These standards can calibrate other noise source and RF path using built-in noise sources or external noise sources. Noise diodes can provide surface mount up to 3 GHz. Noise diodes should have good unit-to-unit consistency and should not require any screening. While selecting noise diodes and noise modules, it is important to emphasize on the engineering hours for designing the noise biasing circuit and amplification against the annual utilization of the overall circuit. It is also essential to determine the return on investment (ROI) of redesigning the circuit and the savings obtained by using a diode instead of packaged surface mount noise modules. Noise standards are designed and manufactured to meet most industry specifications.
Noise standards are used in many applications. Examples include calibrating instruments for satellite communication, Automated Test Equipment (ATE), cable TV, and noise power ratio. Noise standards are also used in calibrating military applications, wireless communications, and NF measurements. Noise standards should adhere to Institute of Noise Control Engineering (INCE) and American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and ASA standards.