Radiant flat panel heaters are used to heat objects via radiant heat transfer, usually via infrared (IR) waves. They are used in a variety of industries and applications, including: space heating, drying, curing, water evaporation, food processing, material preparation, bonding, joining, and industrial processing. Power requirements for radiant flat panel heaters include maximum operating (sheath) temperature, phase, alternating current (AC) voltage, heating capacity, and watt density. Maximum operating (sheath) temperature is the highest temperature that the heater's sheath or sleeve may reach. Note that this is not the maximum temperature that a heated substance may reach. Some radiant flat panel heaters use single-phase power. Others use three-phase power. Heating capacity is the wattage which a radiant flat panel heater can deliver. Watt density is a good measure of how quickly radiant heater can transfer heat to a surface. To calculate watt density, suppliers divide the available wattage by the heated surface area.
Radiant flat panel heaters use different types of emitter surfaces. Choices include: quartz cloth, high-temperature glass, stainless steel, and ceramic infrared. Quartz cloth emitters feature a precision-wound resistance wire embedded in a ceramic fiber body. They are efficient, high-temperature heaters; very cost effective; and designed for harsh conditions. As a result, quartz cloth heaters are the most commonly used type. Glass surface emitters are very high temperature emitters. Although black glass is most often used, clear glass surfaces are also available. A radiant flat panel heater with a stainless steel surface can be used in applications which require sanitary conditions or easy cleanup. Metal surfaces are more durable than glass, but cannot reach the same range of high temperatures since steel tends to absorb more radiated heat than does glass. Ceramic infrared panel heaters are constructed using interlocking pieces of material in order to enable movement of the heater's face as the heater expands and contracts. They provide a compromise between the high temperature capabilities of glass emitters and the cleanliness and durability of steel radiant flat panel heaters.
Radiant flat panel heaters may include features such as dynamic power regulation, explosion proofing, and overheat protection. Corrosion resistant panel heaters are made of corrosion-resistant materials and are suitable for use in a corrosive or chemical environment. Hazardous location heaters are designed for use in places where there is a risk of fire or explosion. Typically, Underwriters Laboratories (UL) and other organizations rate these devices. Indirect fired heaters use a secondary heat exchanger to separate the breathable air stream from the combustion air stream. Radiant flat panel heaters that include a thermostat, microprocessor, grounding wire, or encased coil are also available.
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Band heaters are ring-shaped heaters that clamp onto a cylindrical object and heat via conductive heat transfer.
Cartridge heaters are cylindrical devices generally inserted into a heated substance.
Circulation heaters are used to heat moving or circulating fluids.
Coil Heaters and Cable Heaters
Coil heaters and cable heaters are heating elements formed from straight (uncoiled) segments of round or square heating cable.
Cylindrical Ceramic Fiber Heaters
Cylindrical ceramic fiber heaters consist of an iron-chrome-aluminum (ICA) heating element and a thick layer of ceramic fiber insulation within a cylinder-shaped housing.
Flat Ceramic Fiber Heaters
Flat ceramic fiber heaters consist of an iron-chrome-aluminum (ICA) heating element and a thick layer of ceramic fiber insulation within a non-curved housing.
Immersion heaters are used in applications that require immersing the heater in the substance to be heated.