Image Credits: Weir Minerals, Sturtevant, and Terex

Industrial crushers reduce large rocks, ore, or waste materials to smaller sizes. They are the first level of size reducer; further granularization occurs in grinding mills or pulverizers.

How Industrial Crushers Work

Crushing devices hold feed material between two solid surfaces and apply sufficient force to fracture or deform that material. Primary crushing operations takes boulder size feeds (20 to 100 inches) and reduces the material to secondary crusher feed size (1 to 20 inches) or mill feed size (0.5 to 3 inches). This video illustrates single- and double-toggle jaw crushers.

Video Credit: Agg-Net/QMJ Publishing

Types of Industrial Crushers

There are several types of industrial crushers available to industrial buyers. These types include,

  • Cone or gyratory crushers insert feed via a cone-shape bowl and crush it with a spinning or gyrating head.

Animation Credit: Shanghai Shibang Machinery Corp.

  • HPGR (high pressure grinding rollers), roll/roller crushers, or mineral sizers use two large rollers or a roller and a flat surface. The rolls can be serrated, toothed, or smooth.

Image Credit: MMD Design and Consultancy

  • Vertical impactors use the weight and friction of the feed (autonomous) or add hammer-like processors.
  • Horizontal shaft impactors spin feed against various surfaces.

Video Credit: Shanghai Zenith Co.

  • Jaw crushers feed materials between fixed and reciprocating plates. Blake, swing, overhead eccentric and Dodge jaw crushers are some of the variations available.
  • Bucket crushers both scoop and reduce materials.

Video Credit: Mid Atlantic Hammer

The following table compares types of crushers.

Type

Hardness

Abrasion limit

Moisture content

Reduction ratio

Main use

Cone crushers

Medium hard to very hard

Abrasive

Dry or wet, not sticky

3/1 to 5/1

Quarried materials, Sand & gravel

Gyratory crushers

Soft to very hard

Abrasive

Dry to slightly wet, not sticky

4/1 to 7/1

Heavy mining, Quarried materials

Horizontal shaft impactors

Soft to medium hard

Slightly abrasive

Dry or wet, not sticky

10/1 to 25/1

Quarried materials, sand & gravel, recycling

Jaw crushers

Soft to very hard

No limit

Dry to slightly wet, not sticky

3/1 to 5/1

Heavy mining, Quarried materials, sand & gravel, recycling

Mineral sizers

Hard to soft

Abrasive

Dry or wet and sticky

2/1 to 5/1

Heavy mining

Vertical shaft impactors (autogenous)

Soft to very hard

No limit

Dry or wet, not sticky

2/1 to 5/1

Quarried materials, sand & gravel

Vertical shaft impactors (shoe and anvil)

Medium hard to very hard

Slightly abrasive

Dry or wet, not sticky

6/1 to 8/1

Sand & gravel, recycling

Table Source: Wikipedia (Crushers)

Specifications and Features

Important specifications and features when selecting industrial crushers include,

  • Feed size, material, and hardness must be considered.
  • Output size ranges.

Image Source: Bauermeister

  • Crushers accept dry or wet input, or both.
  • Crushers are feed in batches or continuously.
  • Some units are mobile.

Video Credit: Mid Atlantic Hammer

Applications

Crushers are used in the mining, metallurgical, construction, chemistry, petrochemical, transportation, and energy industries.

References

Bauermeister Crushers

H.P.G.R.

How Our Cone Crusher Works

SBM Stone Crusher Machine Products