Solids granulation equipment and solids agglomeration equipment is used to form solids or crystals from powdered or small grain samples (compaction). Solids granulation and agglomeration equipment can use either a dry process or a wet process. Typically, wet agglomeration processes are used to eliminate dust from dry materials, and to mix products like fertilizers.
There are many different types of solids granulation equipment and solids agglomeration equipment. Examples include disc pelletizers, rotary drums, pin mixers, paddle mixers, compactors, and briquetting machinery. Most solids granulation and agglomeration equipment uses mechanical pressure to compress and compact materials into sheets. The sheets are crushed and sieved, producing a granular or flaked form of the material. Solids granulation and agglomeration equipment also incorporates the use of rolling machinery to compact materials. In briquetting, powdered or granular materials are compressed through a rolling press that may also use a liquid binder and heat.
Some types of solids granulation equipment and solids agglomeration equipment use wet processes to create solids. Drum granulation uses a rotating drum to mix dry materials with liquids or reactive gases. Drum granulation is also used to coat products with special sealants or coatings. Paddle mixing equipment uses a series of moving paddles to mix and move the material up from the bottom of a trough and down the sides. A paddle mixer is often used with toxic materials such as pesticides and chemicals. Pin mixing equipment is used to convert fine powdered materials into small pellets. A pin mixer uses a spinning cylinder covered with pins or rods to mix fine dust, grain, or ash particles with a liquid binder. Disc palletizing or pan pelletizing machinery is another type of solids granulation equipment and solids agglomeration equipment. It uses a heavy-duty rotating disc to encourage the material to mix with a liquid binder and form small balls. The pelletized material grows in size as it moves through the mixing material and is eventually discharged from the rotating pan. Disc pelletizing products may be suitable for processing alumina, cement, iron ore, fertilizer, and fly ash.