Digital parallel and serial converters change input streams of parallel data into output streams of serial bits, or vice versa. Digital parallel converters are designed to convert data in parallel form into a serial sequence of bits that are at same frequency. Digital serial converters are interfacing devices that are used to interconnect two serial standards, such as USB to RS232. Universal serial bus (USB) is a 4-wire, 12-Mbps serial bus for low-to-medium speed peripheral device connections to personal computers (PC) and peripherals such as keyboards and mice. RS 232 is an interface between data terminal equipment (DTE) and data communications equipment (DCE) employing serial binary data interchange. Digital parallel and serial converters achieve parallel-to-serial conversion with a parallel-to-serial integrated circuit (IC), usually an 8-pin device that works on 5 volts (V). Parallel-to-serial conversion is the process of converting the simultaneously-received data stream into transmitting one bit at a time. Serial-to-parallel converters are designed to serially convert the received data into multiple data elements that are then transmitted simultaneously. Such digital parallel and serial converters use a serial-parallel adapter and serial-to-parallel adapter cable to complete this process. Selecting digital parallel and serial converters requires an analysis of product and performance specifications. For example, a parallel-to-serial IC can be used for logging data to a computer and also for communicating 8-bit data through a serial connection. The data rate of a serial converter is the rate in bits/sec (bps) at which the serial data is transmitted. Common specifications for serial converters are interfaces, indications for conditions such as transmission, power-on or collisions, and environmental parameters. Products may also include various components and accessories. For example, serial-parallel adapters consist of one serial port and one parallel port for the printer. These devices do not require an additional power source. A serial-to-parallel adapter cable supports a bidirectional parallel interface. Digital parallel and serial converters are designed and manufactured for use in many different applications. Some examples include digital oscilloscopes, TV tuners, and microcontrollers. Many digital parallel converters and digital serial converters adhere to Electronic Industries Association (EIA) standards for connecting serial devices. Specialty digital parallel and serial converters are also available.