Electrical Voltage Sensors Information
Electrical voltage sensors measure AC and/or DC voltage levels. They receive voltage inputs and provide outputs as analog voltage signals, analog current levels, switches, or audible signals. They can also provide frequency and modulated frequency outputs. For example, some electrical voltage sensors produce sine waves or pulse trains. Others provide amplitude modulation (AM), frequency modulation (FM), or pulse width modulation (PWM).
Self-powered devices are commonly available. Handheld products are portable and do not require special mounting hardware. Electrical voltage sensors that mount on DIN rails and printed circuit boards (PCB) are also used. Through hole technology (THT) mounts components on a printed circuit board by inserting component leads through holes in the board and then soldering the leads in place on the opposite side of the board. Surface mount technology (SMT) adds components to a printed circuit board (PCB) by soldering component leads or terminals to the top surface of the board.
Electrical voltage sensors vary in terms of performance specifications, optional features, and environmental operating conditions. Performance specifications include:
- Maximum AC voltage frequency
- Response time
Depending on the device, response times can range from milliseconds to minutes. Accuracy, a percentage amount, represents the difference between a voltage measurement and the actual level.
Optional features for electrical voltage sensors include analog or digital visual indicators. Typically, analog devices feature a needle or pointer while digital units provide an alphanumeric readout. Some electrical voltage sensors are capable of measuring three-phase AC voltage. Others are equipped with polarity indication, an important feature for DC voltage measurement applications. In terms of environmental operating conditions, electrical voltage sensors vary in terms of both environmental shock survivability and environmental vibration survivability.
There are a variety of applications for electrical voltage sensors. For example, devices that measure AC voltage levels are used in applications such as power demand control, power failure detection, load sensing, safety switching, and motor overload control. Electrical voltage sensors that measure DC voltages are used in energy management control systems (EMCS), building control systems (BCS), fault detection, data acquisition, and temperature control. They are also used in power measurement, analysis, and control. Specialized devices are used in high-voltage applications. Current technologies include electrical voltage sensors that use fiber optics and optical components.
GOST 14014 - Digital instruments and measuring transducers of voltage, current and resistance. General technical requirements and methods of tests