Inertial measurement units (IMU) use integrated gyroscopes and accelerometers to detect the distance and direction traveled over a period of time. Measurements are summed to determine change from an initial location. Calibration parameters can be stored in the memory of an IMU, and are automatically reflected in the measurement data. IMUs are used in applications such as motion analysis and control, unmanned and navigation systems, vibration control and stabilization, as well as pointing and tracking systems.
Initial IMU sensory coordinate axes. Image Credit: ssl.umd.edu