Nebulizers are medical drug delivery machines used to administer medication in the form of a mist inhaled in the lungs. They typically consist of an air compressor to which a medicine cup is attached via a narrow hose. When compressed air is pumped through the hose, it breaks up the medical solution within the cup and delivers it to the patient's airway in the form of aerosol droplets. To this end, the medicine cup may be attached to a mouthpiece or mask to facilitate medicine delivery.
The parts of a typical nebulizer. Image credit: Cleveland Clinic
Nebulizers are used to treat various respiratory diseases, including asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).