Trade magazines are periodicals circulated to related merchants and industries to provide the reader with professional news, market trends and analysis, and product announcements. These magazines often include employment opportunities and target advertising aimed at industry professionals. These magazines are often published by trade associations and are subsidized by association membership or subscription. Some publishers may restrain distribution to ensure its magazine is available only to industry insiders, and distribution may be in printed and/or digital formats. These items do no usually have the same academic focus as trade journals. Common examples of a trade magazine include The Engineer, IEEE Microwave Magazine, CERN Courier, and Blueprint.