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  • Incandescent Lamps - generate light by passing an electric current through a thin filament wire (usually of tungsten) until the wire is extremely hot.

  • Solid State Lasers - use a transparent substance (crystalline or glass) as the active medium, doped to provide the energy states necessary for lasing.

  • Light Emitting Diodes (LED) - PN junction devices that give off light radiation when biased in the forward direction.

  • Halogen Lamps - high pressure incandescent lamps containing halogen gases such as iodine or bromine, which allow the filaments to be operated at higher temperatures and higher efficacies.

  • High Intensity Discharge Lamps (HID) - contain compact arc tubes, which enclose various gases and metal salts, operating at relatively high pressures and temperatures.