There are a number of standard components for pumps and pump systems.
Parts of a Pump
When a pump breaks down, sometimes buying replacement parts or components is an alternative to buying a new pump. Most centrifugal pumps consist of a few basic components:
- Housing/casing – The outer shell of the pump which protects most of the components from the outside elements. The casing of the pump should be of materials suitable to withstand the environmental conditions of the application (e.g. submersible pumps should be water and rust corrosion resistant
- Impeller – A rotating disk with a set of vanes coupled to a shaft. When the impeller rotates, it imparts energy to the fluid to induce flow. Flow characteristics of the pump vary widely based on the impeller design.
- Motor – The power source of the pump which drives the shaft. AC motors and DC motors are the most common power sources for pumps, but internal combustion engines (ICEs), hydraulic power, and steam power are other possibilities.
- Shaft – The shaft connects the impeller to the motor/engine that provides power for the pump.
- Volute – The inner casing that contains the impeller and collects, discharges, and (sometimes) recirculates the fluid being pumped. The materials used to construct the lining of the pump volute must be compatible with the handled media.
- Bearing assembly – The mechanical support that allows continuous rotation of the impeller and is continuously lubricated.
- Hub – Device attached to the bearing assembly which is the connecting point for the motor or engine.
- Seal – Protects the bearing assembly from being contaminated by the pumped media. Some pump designs are sealless, meaning the pumping mechanism is completely contained within a pressurized volute chamber with static seals (e.g. gaskets or O-rings).
Parts of the Pump System
Outside of the pump itself are a number of additional components which are part of a complete pumping system.
- Controllers – Used in conjunction with probes and sensors to provide operational information as well as automatic or manual control of different pumping functions.
- Fittings and adapters – Parts which connect different system components (pumps, motors,pipe, hose, etc.) to one-another.
- Mounting devices – Used to allow pumps to be mounted in different ways, such as on walls, on the ground, or on/near associated stationary equipment.
Pump motor adapters – mounting devices used to connect dissimilar motor and pump bolt configurations.
- Probes and sensors – Used to measureliquid level,pressure, temperature, and other important system factors during system operation. Data from probes and sensors are sent to controllers or computers for system analysis or response.
- Valves – Used to control flow within different parts of the system, including the pump inlet and outlet.