Valves are used in many applications throughout the industrial, commercial, and residential industries. Due to this wide range of uses, there are several major regulatory organizations which provide standards to ensure proper functionality, compatibility and safety for users.
The major standard organizations include the American Petroleum Institute (API), the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the ASTM International (FKA American Society for Testing Materials), and the Manufacturers Standardization Society (MSS). While the organizations above were founded and are headquartered in the U.S., they have international reach today with their standards used around the world.
Engineers designing a valve for or using a valve in a product or system design for global use, should review the standard documents available from international and the applicable national standard organization.
- The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a major international standards body with several important valve standards.
- The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) creates or approves a majority of the European standards or Euro Norms (EN) and technical specifications for the member countries in the European Union.
- Some valve standards from national standards bodies include ANSI Valve Standards (United States), BSI Valve Standards (United Kingdom), CSA Valve Standards (Canada), DIN Valve Standards (Germany), EEMUA Valve Standards (United Kingdom), and JSA Valve Standards (Japan). National standards bodies mainly approve product standards for use in their prospective countries from other standards organizations. In addition, they provide national accreditation services for standard and certification organizations and coordinate technical advisory groups to ISO.
Engineers designing a valve for or using a valve in a product or system design for specific industrial application, should review the standard documents available from applicable industrial society organizations. Some industry specific valve standards include:
- API Valve Standards
- ASHRAE Valve Standards
- ASME BPVC Valve Standards
- ASSE Valve Standards
- AWWA Valve Standards
- ISA Valve Standards
- NFPA Valve Standards
- SAE Valve Standards
Valve standards from safety focused organizations include NFPA Valve Standards and UL Valve Standards. Many of the standards from the other industry specific, national or international standards organization also pertain to safety aspects of products or assuring products perform safety in their applications without loss of life or damage to property.
American Petroleum Institute (API)
The American Petroleum Institute (API) represents the oil and natural gas industry. They produce more than 900 standards that serve as the basis for quality programs that maintain regulations for production material and lubricants, and certification programs for storage tanks, pressure vessels, and piping inspectors. API publishes reports that include recommended practices, research reports, and specifications on pipelines, valves and environmental procedures.
There are more than 20 API standards addressing the manufacturing, application and safety of valves. Specific standards include:
- API SPEC 6D - Specification for Pipeline Valves. API Specification 6D is an adoption of ISO 14313: 1999, Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries-- Pipeline Transportation Systems-Pipeline Valves. This International Standard specifies requirements and gives recommendations for the design, manufacturing, testing, and documentation of ball, check, gate, and plug valves for application in pipeline systems.
- API STD 598 - Valve Inspection and Testing. The standard covers inspection, supplementary examination and pressure test requirements for both resilient-seated and metal-to-metal seated gate, globe, plug, ball, check and butterfly valves. Pertains to inspection by the purchaser and to any supplementary examinations the purchaser may require at the valve manufacturer's plant.
- API STD 527 - Seat Tightness of Pressure Relief Valves R(2002). Describes methods of determining the seat tightness of metal and soft-seated pressure relief valves, including those of conventional, bellows and pilot-operated designs.
- API STD 602 - Steel Gate, Globe, and Check Valves for Sizes NPS 4 (DN 100) and Smaller for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries-Ninth Edition
- API STD 607 - Fire Test for Quarter-turn Valves and Valves Equipped with Nonmetallic Seats – Sixth Edition
- API STD 609 - Butterfly Valves: Double-flanged, Lug- and Wafer-type-Seventh Edition This standard covers design, materials, face-to-face dimensions, pressure-temperature ratings, and examination, inspection and test requirements for gray iron, ductile iron, bronze, steel, nickel-based alloy, or special alloy butterfly valves that provide tight shutoff in the closed position. The standard covers the following Category A and B butterfly valves.
More information on API standards can be found on the American Petroleum Institute website.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) is a professional member organization focused on technical, educational and research issues of the engineering and technology community. In addition to hosting technical conferences and development courses, ASME sets internationally recognized industrial and manufacturing standards that enhance public safety. The subdivision of Pressure Vessels and Piping covers the design, fabrication and operation of valves and other pressure-bearing components and vessels.
ASME publishes hundreds of standards, and many of them are for a specific instrument in a specific application. Some examples of valve standards are listed below.
- ASME F1020- Standard Specification for Line-Blind Valves for Marine Applications
- ASME B16.33 - EN-Manually Operated Metallic Gas Valves for Use in Gas Piping Systems up to 125 PSI (Sizes NPS 1/2 Through NPS 2)
- ASME B16.34 INTERPRETATIONS - EN-Interpretations to B16.34-1996 Valves - Flanged Threaded and Welding End-Includes Interpretation No. 2
- ASME B16.10 INTERPRETATIONS - EN-Interpretations to B16.10-1992 Face-to-Face and End-to-End Dimensions of Valves-Includes Interpretation No. 1
ASME BPVC Code
The ASME BPVC Code establishes the rules of safety governing the design, fabrication, inspection, testing, and operation of boilers andpressure vessels, and nuclear power plant components during construction. The objective of these rules is to provide a margin for deterioration in service. The ASME BPVC code or standards are updated every two years to include advancements in design and material based on the evidence of experience. The ASME BPV Certificate Scopes (BPV Stampholder Scopes) list the authorized activities for each type of ASME certificate or stamp. Several ASME stamps or certificates of authorization are required for pressure relief or safety valves on boiler, pressure vessel and pressure equipment such as:
- ASME High Pressure Vessel Safety Valve Accreditation Set
- ASME Pressure Vessel Safety Valve Accreditation Set
- ASME V Stamp - Power Boiler Safety Valves
- ASME HV Stamp - Heating Boilers Safety Valves
- ASME UV Stamp Div 1 - Pressure Vessels Safety Relief Valves
- ASME UV Stamp Div 2 - Pressure Vessels Safety Relief Valves
- ASME UV3 Stamp - Safety Valves for High Pressure Vessels
- ASME TV Stamp - Transport Tanks Safety Valves
- ASME NV Stamp - Nuclear Safety Valves and Nuclear Safety Relief Valves
For more information on the valve standards, visit the American Society of Mechanical Engineers website and IHS Collection of American Society of Mechanical Engineers Standards.
ASTM International, originally known as the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM), is the largest voluntary standards development organization in the world. Throughout 67 volumes in 16 different areas, the organization has included standards in test procedures for determining chemical composition and performance metrics.
ASTM develops valve standards for valves made of a particular material and for a specific application. Examples of their standards include:
- ASTM A961/A691M - Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe, Electric-Fusion-Welded for High-Pressure Service at High Temperatures.
- ASTM B61 - Standard Specification for Steam or Valve Bronze Castings.
- ASTM F1030 - Standard Practice for Selection of Valve Operators.
- ASTM F1802 - Standard Test Method for Performance Testing of Excess Flow Valves.
- ASTM F1793 - Standard Specification for Automatic Shut-Off Valves (Also Known as Excess Flow Valves, EFV) for Air or Nitrogen Service
- ASTM F1794 - Standard Specification for hand-operated, globe-style valves for gas (except oxygen gas) and Hydraulic Systems
A complete list of valve standards can be found at the ASTM international website and the IHS Collection of American Society for Testing Materials Standards.
Fluid Control Institute (FCI)
The Fluid Control Institute (FCI) provides standards and other materials to assist purchasers and users in understanding and using fluid control and conditioning equipment such as control valves, solenoid valves and regulators.
- FCI 68-2 - PROCEDURE IN RATING FLOW AND PRESSURE CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLENOID VALVES FOR LIQUID SERVICE
- FCI 70-1 - STANDARD TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITION FOR FILLED THERMAL SYSTEMS FOR REMOTE SENSING TEMPERATURE REGULARS
- FCI 75-1 - TEST CONDITIONS AND PROCEDURES FOR MEASURING ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLENOID VALVES
- FCI 82-1 - RECOMMENDED METHODS FOR TESTING AND CLASSIFYING THE WATER HAMMER CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRICALLY OPERATED VALVES
- FCI 84-1 - METRIC DEFINITION OF THE VALVE FLOW COEFFICIENT CV
- FCI 91-1 - STANDARD FOR QUALIFICATION OF CONTROL VALVE STEM SEALS
More information can be found on the FCI website.
International Society of Automation (ISA)
The International Society of Automation (ISA) publishes standards for automation professionals, which are available exclusively through IHS. ISA standards, specifications and recommended practices provide direction for streamlining processes and improving industry safety, efficiency and profitability.
- ISA 75.02.01 - Control Valve Capacity Test Procedures
- ISA 75.05.01 - Control Valve Terminology-Replaces 75.05-1983
- ISA 75.07 - Laboratory Measurement of Aerodynamic Noise Generated by Control Valves
- ISA 75.08.01 - Face-to-Face Dimensions for Integral Flanged Globe-Style Control Valve Bodies (Classes 125 150 250 300 and 600)
- ISA 75.08.02 - Face-to-Face Dimensions for Flangeless Control Valves (Classes 150 300 and 600)
- ISA 75.08.03 - Face-to-Face Dimensions for Socket Weld-End and Screwed-End Globe-Style Control Valves (Classes 150 300 600 900 1500 and 2500)
- ISA 75.08.04 - Face-To-Face Dimensions for Buttweld-End Globe-Style Control Valves (Class 4500)
- ISA 75.08.05 - Face-to-Face Dimensions for Buttweld-End Globe-Style Control Valves (Class 150 300 600 900 1500 and 2500)
- ISA 75.08.06 - Face-to-Face Dimensions for Flanged Globe-Style Control Valve Bodies (Classes 900 1500 and 2500)-Formerly ISA 75.16
- ISA 75.08.07 - Face-to-Face Dimensions for Separable Flanged Globe-Style Control Valves (Classes 150 300 and 600)
- ISA 75.08.08 - Face-to-Centerline Dimensions for Flanged Globe-Style Angle Control Valve Bodies (ANSI Classes 150 300 and 600)
- ISA 75.08.09 - Face-to-Face Dimensions for Sliding Stem Flangeless Control Valves (Classes 150 300 and 600)
- ISA 75.10.01 - General Requirements for Clamp or Pinch Valves
- ISA 75.10.02- Installed Face-to-Face Dimensions for Dual Pinch Flanged Clamp or Pinch Valves (Classes 125 and 150)
- ISA 75.11.01 - Inherent Flow Characteristic and Rangeability of Control Valves
- ISA 75.13.01 - Method of Evaluating the Performance of Positioners with Analog Input Signals and Pneumatic Output-Second Printing
International Standards Organization (ISO)
The international standards organization (ISO) is made up of representatives from national standards bodies. They are the largest developer of technical and economical standards which cover a wide range of items. ISO standards are numbered with the format "ISO nnnnn: yyyy: Title." "nnnnn" is the standard number, "yyyy" is the year published, and "Title" is the description of the subject.
- ISO 4411: Second Edition 2008 - Hydraulic fluid power, Valves; Determination of pressure
- ISO 5208: 2008 - Industrial valves, pressure testing of valves
- ISO 5209: 1977 - General purpose industrial valves; Marking First Edition
- ISO 6264: 1998 - Hydraulic fluid power -- Pressure-relief valves - Mounting surfaces
More information on ISO standards can be found at the International Standards Organization website.
Manufactures Standardization Society (MSS) of the Valve and Fitting Industry
The Manufactures Standardization Society (MSS) of the valve and fittings industry is a non-profit technical association. Their goal is to develop and improve industrial, national and international codes and standards for valves, valve actuators, pipe fittings, and valve modifications. MSS standards are used around the world and in many industries. Examples of their standards are below.
- MSS SP-25 - Standard marking system for valves, fittings, flanges and unions
- MSS SP-67 - Butterfly valves
- MSS SP-82 - Valves pressure testing methods
National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspector (NBBI)
The National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors (NBBI) created the National Board Inspection Code (NBIC) in 1946, which serves as one of the primary tools for compliance assurance. This code has been adopted by most states and cities in the United States, all Canadian provinces and someUS regulatory agencies, including the US Department of Transportation. It is the only code recognized worldwide for the in-service inspection of repairs and alterations of boilers and pressure vessels (BPV).
- VRStamp - The National Board offers theCertificate of AuthorizationandRsymbol stamp for the repair pressure relief valves. The requirements the supplier must meet to be authorized are described in NBIC standards for Repairs and Alterations - NBBI NB-23 PART 3, Section 1.
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