From Automation Applications in Bio-Pharmaceuticals
In order to more easily understand the information presented in this
chapter, it may be helpful for the reader to consider the activities that are
involved with making, operating, and maintaining a reliable automobile.
Automobiles are designed and tested to meet functional requirements; are
manufactured with assembly lines, properly trained personnel and use of
SOPs to ensure that a consistent product is created; then depend upon
owners to ensure that periodic oil changes and other maintenance activities
are conducted to keep the car in a reliable state. Many parallels exist
between this paradigm and that of computer validation. Specific examples
are included in this chapter.
Processes used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals for human
consumption must be validated. The scope of validation includes not
only the chemical processing unit operations themselves but also the
supporting aspects of manufacturing operations such as assay validation,
cleaning validation, utility validation (e.g., use of purified water), and
A validated process is one that reproducibly meets expectations. It is generally
perceived as containing four key elements:
- Process Definition; i.e., a description of the process when it runs
- Demonstration; i.e., via the successful execution of test lots.
- Documentation; i.e., if...
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Topics of Interest
6.1 Introduction: "To Batch or Not to Batch" The automation of processes had its theoretical and practical application origins in the continuous petrochemical industries, starting in the mid-...
Medical Device & Diagnostic Industry Ashweni Sahni and Curtis L. Larsen Process validation is required to meet the current good manufacturing practices (GMP) regulation for medical devices.
By Joseph Alford, Ph.D., P.E., CAP, ISA Fellow At least two universally accepted principles characterize alarms. Alarm systems should be designed to alert, inform and guide operators to help them do...
Medical Device & Diagnostic Industry The use of computer-controlled equipment and processes in the creation of finished medical devices has been increasing since the early 1980s. Even small...
9.2 Drug tablet testing for mechanical properties and defects 9.2.1 Drug tablet as a composite structure: structure of a typical drug tablet The most fundamental and critical objective of a tablet is...