Peng Sun and Martin Adams, formerly of Because their effects on semiconductor devices are numerous and destructive, organic contaminants on wafer surfaces must be monitored and controlled. It has been reported that the presence of organic contamination can change surface hydrophobicity, lower breakdown voltage, form silicon carbide, affect oxide growth and quality, cause unintentional doping, contribute to degradation haze formation, and generate post-CVD defects. To prevent such effects, various techniques have been used to analyze organic contaminants on silicon wafer surfaces, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ion mobility spectrometry, time-of-flight ion mass spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermal desorption gas chromatographymass spectrometry. However, all these methods have limitations. They either lack the capability to identify specific contaminants or are unable to quantify total organics accurately. This article describes a new technique that uses thermal desorption gas chromatography (TD-GC) coupled with a mass spectrometry detector (MSD) and an atomic emission detector (AED) for organic contaminant analysis. By combining the superior separation ability of GC, the accurate compound-identification ability of an MSD, and the sensitive elemental-analysis ability of an AED, TD-GC-MSD/AED can provide simultaneous qualitative and quantitative measurements of organic contaminants on silicon wafers. The article also discusses the use of this combined technique to monitor organic contamination in wafer manufacturing processes and environments at the MEMC Electronic Materials facility (St. Peters, MO), detailing the detection procedures and their capabilities. The TD-GC-MSD/AED system used in the work described in this article consists of a Model 6890 GC interfaced with a Model 5970 MSD and a Model G2350 AED, all from Hewlett-Packard (Palo Alto, CA). The MSD is employed for the identification of organic contaminants, and the AED is used for the quantification of total organic carbon, total organophosphorus, and other elements of interest. Samples are introduced into the GC separation column
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Laboratory and Calibration Gases
Laboratory and calibration gases are specialized for use as laboratory standards, as well as for detection, sample preparation, environmental monitoring and analysis applications.
Gas chromatography detectors (GC detectors) identify solutes as they exit the chromatographic column. A chromatogram is generated plotting the signal versus time.
Gas chromatographs separate organic chemical mixtures according to physical properties.
High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns use a liquid mobile phase to separate the components of a mixture.
Topics of Interest
Peng Sun and Martin Adams, formerly of By combining mass spectrometry and atomic emission detectors, an analytical technique can provide both qualitative and quantitative data. Because their effects...
Anurag Kumar and Mark J. Camenzind, Organic contamination deposited on wafer surfaces from ultrapure water (UPW) can seriously undermine wafer-cleaning efficiency, which leads to nonuniform etching.
3.10 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
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Atomic absorption spectrometry
atomic absorption spectrometry
allyl butyl ether
atomic force microscopy