Alex Salnik, Lena Nicolaides, and Jon Ospal, combination of ion implantation and thermal annealing, which are both silicon surface modification methods, is a key production process in semiconductor manufacturing. Thermal-wave (TW) technology measures surface modification (i.e., "damage") induced by ion implantation. Based on modulated optical reflectance, which is also known as photomodulated reflectance, the technology is well established in wafer processing to characterize and control ion implant dose accuracy and uniformity. Advanced semiconductor fabrication uses low-energy ion implantation processes to achieve ultrashallow (<500-Å) implantation depths. Several types of annealing methods, including rapid thermal-spike anneals, laser annealing, and flash-lamp annealing, are known to minimize the diffusion of dopants, thus forming low-resistivity ultrashallow junctions (USJs). The implantation of B at low-energy, high-doping concentrations (~10 ) combined with rapid thermal-spike annealing (RTA) is currently the leading process used to fabricate USJs. Potential process problems in forming USJ layers lie in both the implant and the anneal procedures. While it is relatively easy to create a shallow layer using implantation, keeping the USJ profile abrupt and close to the surface after anneal is challenging. Junction depth (X ), profile abruptness, and resistivity (dopant activation) are the most critical parameters in the characterization of USJs. Nonuniformities associated with ion implantation and RTA or other types of anneal methods can result in residual damage areas on the wafer surface. Hence, monitoring is required to ensure process control. Typically, destructive analytical methods such as secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and spreading resistance depth profiling (SRP) have been used to analyze USJs. While these methods can provide detailed USJ profile information, they do so at the expense of turnaround times that are measured in days or even weeks. The increasing need for a sensitive, rapid, and nondestructive technique for monitoring all key USJ profile parameters
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Thin Film Equipment
Thin film equipment uses vacuum processing for the modification of surfaces using CVD, PVD, plasma etching, and thermal oxidation or ion implantation.
Thin Film Coating Services
Thin film coating services apply very thin layers of specialized materials to part surfaces. They perform processes such chemical vapor deposition (CVD), physical vapor deposition (PVD), ion implantation, electrochemical deposition (ECD), plasma etching, rapid thermal processing (RTP), and titanium nitride coating.
Technology Computer-Aided Design Software (TCAD)
Technology computer-aided design software (TCAD) is used to simulate the fabrication process (but not the behavior) of semiconductor devices. TCAD software helps to optimize the semiconductor fabrication process and provides 2D modeling.
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Surface engineering service providers analyze and modify a surface or near subsurface region to improve service performance against chemical, thermal, mechanical or environmental conditions.
Topics of Interest
A novel optical metrology technique designed for leading technology nodes can measure junction depth, amorphous layer thickness, and dose. Semiconductor manufacturers face significant process control...
Ion implantation directs a highly accelerated beam of charged atoms (ions) at a surface resulting in the capture of some of these atoms in the surface of the substrate or wafer. In microelectronics,...
Hong and Wang J. M. Rigsbee
Surface modification processes have been used for thousands of years to enhance the properties and performance of materials. It is only in the last...
Helios, a rapid thermal processing (RTP) system, allows chipmakers to address demanding 300-mm RTP applications down to the 65-nm node, including ultrashallow junction (USJ) and nickel silicide...
7.2 Ion Implantation in InP
Ion implantation is widely used as a means of doping layers in silicon integrated circuit technology. However, the technique...