David A. Zatko and David F. Yesenofski, ; and Manfred Schneegans and Johann Helneder, A significant stage in the development of new products, beta-site testing enables manufacturers and potential users to collaborate on studies that complement the manufacturers' laboratory and in-house evaluations. Beta-site participants have an opportunity to learn about technological advances and have an impact on how a new system is finally configured for production, while the manufacturer gains insights into the ways the tool performs in the field. As shrinking device sizes and increasing numbers of process steps increase the risks associated with moisture contamination, the semiconductor industry needs new techniques for controlling gas purity. Extensive beta-site collaboration is needed to develop products that can minimize contamination-related downtime, provide more knowledge about the moisture levels that are acceptable for a given process, and allow purge cycles to be determined with precision. This article reports on the beta tests performed at two sites for an in-line moisture detection device based on a new monitoring technology developed by Millipore (Bedford, MA), which was described in an earlier issue of Designed to measure moisture levels in ultra-high-purity (UHP) nitrogen and argon gases, the monitor uses a piezoelectric quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor. The quartz crystal is coated with a thin film of barium metal, with which moisture reacts irreversibly: The speed of this chemical reaction enables the sensor to respond rapidly. As moisture reacts with the barium, the mass of the coating increases, causing a decrease in the frequency of crystal oscillation. The rate of change in oscillation frequency is correlated to moisture concentration through a one-time factory calibration. A calibration constant is programmed into the monitor's onboard electronics for use in calculating the moisture level (in parts per billion by volume, or ppbv) from the frequency change per unit of
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Wafer and Thin Film Instrumentation
Instruments such as quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) monitors, ellipsometers, RHEED systems, imaging stations, CD-SEMs, ion mills, C-V systems specifically designed for wafer metrology or in-situ monitoring of thin film parameters during thin film or semiconductors wafer processing.
Thin Film Monitors
Thin film monitors are used to analyze and/or control thin film deposition rate, composition and properties.
Crystals are naturally occurring materials that can be induced to resonate (vibrate) at an exact frequency. Quartz, a piezoelectric crystal that provides excellent mechanical and electrical stability, acquires a charge when compressed, twisted, or distorted.
Piezoelectric ceramics produce an electrical charge when a load is applied and deformation occurs. Piezoelectric ceramics can also produce force or deformation when an electrical charge is applied.
Electroceramics are ceramic materials that have been specially formulated for specific electrical, electro-magnetic, or optical properties. They include dielectric ceramics, electrostrictive ceramics, ferrite ceramics, garnets (ferromagnets), and piezoelectric ceramics.
Topics of Interest
Jian Wei, John E. Pillion, Steven M. King, and Matt Verlinden, Millipore Widely considered the most significant contaminant in semiconductor process gases, moisture can cause particle formation and...
Oscillators, especially sinusoidal oscillators, are among the main components of all RF systems. They are being used as so-called pilot oscillators to generate the carrier frequencies of transmitters...
C.FALCONI, E.ZAMPETTI, A.MASSARI, E.MARTINELLI, C.DI NATALE, A. D AMICO
Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133, Rome, Italy
It is generally...
Some materials generate an electric charge when placed under mechanical stress. For example, a 2-kN force properly applied to a cubic-centimetersized quartz crystal produces over 12.5 kV. Voltage...
Research Fellow, Materials Research Branch, Solar Energy Research Institute,
This paper is concerned with identifying solid polymeric materials that...