From Chemical Engineering Design: Principles, Practice and Economics of Plant and Process Design


Key Learning Objectives

  • How to specify and design a shell and tube heat exchanger

  • How to design boilers, thermosyphon reboilers and condensers

  • How to design a plate heat exchanger

  • How to design air coolers and fired heaters

  • How to determine whether a reactor can be heated or cooled using a jacket or internal coil


The transfer of heat to and from process fluids is an essential part of most chemical processes. The most commonly used type of heat transfer equipment is the ubiquitous shell and tube heat exchanger, the design of which is the main subject of this chapter.

The fundamentals of heat transfer theory are covered in many other textbooks: see Holman (2002), Ozisik (1985), Rohsenow et al. (1998), Kreith and Bohn (2000), and Incropera and Dewitt (2001).

Several useful books have been published on the design of heat exchange equipment. These should be consulted for more details of the construction of equipment and design methods than can be given in this book. A selection of the more useful texts is listed in the bibliography at the end of this chapter. The compilation edited by Schl nder (1983) is probably the most comprehensive work on heat exchanger design methods available in the open literature; see also the edition by Hewitt (1990). The book by Saunders (1988) is recommended as a good source of information on heat exchanger design, especially for shell and tube exchangers.

As with distillation, work on the development of reliable design methods for heat...

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Products & Services
Condensers are devices which accept a vapor stream and convert it to a liquid using heat transfer and/or compression.They are used in steam turbines for power plants, in cooling units for in-process fluids, and in air conditioning systems for buildings and automobiles.
Boilers (industrial)
Industrial boilers are closed vessels that use a fuel source or electricity to heat water or generate steam for industrial heating and humidification applications.
Central Heating Systems
Central heating systems provide heat from a single point to multiple rooms, typically with a furnace or boiler and vents, pipes, or radiators.
Vaporizers are heat exchangers that convert liquefied gases to a warm gaseous product. The heat source can be ambient air, steam or water.

Topics of Interest

OVERVIEW Key Learning Objectives What factors a process engineer must consider when setting specifications for a pressure vessel How pressure vessels are designed and what determines the vessel wall...

Overview In this chapter we discuss process equipment such as The steam side of reboilers Steam turbine surface condensers Condensate recovery systems Deaerators The steam side of shell-and-tube...

10.1 Introduction A reboiler is a heat exchanger that is used to generate the vapor supplied to the bottom tray of a distillation column. The liquid from the bottom of the column is partially...

Overview After distillation, heat transfer is the most important operation in a process plant. Most of the heat transfer in chemical plants and petroleum refineries takes place in shell-and-tube heat...

3.1 Introduction In this chapter, we consider some of the techniques that are used in the analysis of industrial heat-exchange equipment. Of the many types of commercially available heat exchangers,...