From Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing

11.1 INTRODUCTION

Natural gas continues to play a great role as a worldwide energy supply. In fact, major projects are being planned to move massive amounts of high-pressure sales gas from processing plants to distribution systems and large industrial users through large-diameter buried pipelines. These pipelines utilize a series of compressor stations along the pipeline to move the gas over long distances. In addition, gas coolers are used on the discharge side of the compressor stations to maintain a specified temperature of the compressed gas for pipeline downstream pressure drop reduction and to protect gas pipeline internal and external coating against deterioration due to high temperatures. This chapter covers all the important concepts of sales gas transmission from a fundamental perspective.

11.2 GAS FLOW FUNDAMENTALS

Optimum design of a gas transmission pipeline requires accurate methods for predicting pressure drop for a given flow rate or predicting flow rate for a specified pressure drop in conjunction with installed compression power and energy requirements, e.g., fuel gas, as part of a technical and economic evaluation. In other words, there is a need for practical methods to relate the flow of gas through a pipeline to the properties of both the pipeline and gas and to the operating conditions, such as pressure and temperature. Isothermal steady-state pressure drop or flow rate calculation methods for single-phase dry gas pipelines are the most widely used and the most basic relationships in the engineering of gas delivery systems (Beggs, 1984; Smith, 1990, Aziz and Ouyang, 1995).

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Products & Services
Hot Tapping Machines
Hot tapping machines are used to safely drill into pressurized pipe to add main or service lines without interrupting the service.
Gas Cabinets and Distribution Systems
Gas cabinets and distribution systems consist of vaporizers, gas cabinets, gas manifolds, mass flow controllers, valves, pressure sensors and associated interconnect tubing configured to deliver bulk and specialty gases to process equipment.
Chemical Process and Petrochemical Gases

Chemical process and petrochemical gases are materials used in the production of compounds or products. They are used in processes such as inerting, blanketing, purging, sparging, and stripping. These gases are used in many applications including treatment and sterilization, medicine, energy solutions, and manufacturing.

Gas Flow Meters
Gas flow meters are used for measuring the flow or quantity of a moving gas in an enclosed pipe or passage.

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