From Lee's Loss Prevention in the Process Industries: Hazard Identification, Assessment and Control, Volume 3, Third Edition


An earthquake is one of the principal natural hazards from which process plants world-wide are at risk. Some account is therefore necessary of the seismic design of plants and the assessment of seismic hazard to plants.

Accounts of earthquakes are given in Seismicity of the Earth and Associated Phenomena by Gutenberg and Richter (1954), Elementary Seismology by Richter (1958), Introduction to Seismology by Bath (1979), Earthquakes and the Urban Environment by Berlin (1980), Earthquakes by Eiby (1980), An Introduction to the Theory of Seismology by Bullen and Bolt (1985) and Earthquakes by Bolt (1988). Treatments of earthquake engineering, most of which give some coverage of seismology, include Dynamics of Bases and Foundations by Barkan (1962), Earthquake Engineering by Wiegel (1970), Fundamentals of Earthquake Engineering by Newmark and Rosenbleuth (1971), Earthquake Resistant Design by Dowrick (1977, 1987), Ground Motion and Engineering Seismology by Cakmak (1987) and Manual of Seismic Design by Stratta (1987). UK conditions are dealt with in Earthquake Engineering in Britain by the Institution of Civil Engineers (1985) and by Lilwall (1976) and Alderson (1982 SRD R246, 1985).

It is proper to recognize also the large amount of work done on seismicity and seismic engineering in Japan.

Earthquake engineering is a specialist discipline. The account given here is limited to an elementary introduction.

Selected references on earthquakes, earthquake-resistant design and earthquake hazard assessment are given in Table A15.1

Table A15.1: Selected references on earthquakes,...
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Products & Services
Geophysical Instruments
Geophysical instruments are used for geological study, including rock and soil mechanics, core analysis and surveys of the earth.
Seismic Instruments
Seismic instruments are used to measure low frequency ground motion caused by earthquakes.
Certification Services
Certification services include companies that test, inspect, register and/or certify products, components, equipment, instruments, processes, management systems or facilities. This area also includes organizations that evaluate, audit, assist, train and/or register companies on facility or system wide assessments such as ISO registration, process quality audits, health and safety assessment, and management systems evaluation.    
Temperature Signal Conditioners
Temperature signal conditioners accept outputs from temperature measurement devices such as resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), thermocouples, and thermistors. They then filter, amplify, and/or convert these outputs to digital signals, or to levels suitable for digitization.
Product and Component Testing Services
Product and component testing services is the evaluation of a finished product or component through performance in electrical, life, environmental exposure, dynamic, ergonomic or other specialized tests.  Also testing to standards such as UL 489, CE or MIL-STD 810.

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